Why do We Fall Ill ? : Complete Set of Questions



This set of questions contains all the possible concepts
which could be asked in the examination

 

Health and its failure

 

Q.1     Define ‘Health’. 

It is a state of being well enough to function physically, mentally and socially.


Q.2     State three conditions essential for being free of diseases. 

Conditions essential for being free of diseases-

(i) Personal hygiene

(ii) Community hygiene

(iii) Balanced diet


Q.3     What do you interpret when you say a person is in good health?

When we say a person is in good health, it implies that the different body systems and organs of that person functions well and as a whole, the body is able to strike a balance with the physical, mental and social environment.


Q.4     List any two practices you would like to follow in order to maintain good health

Or

List any four essential factors that must be taken care of by an individual for keeping good health.

(i) Balance diet.

(ii) Disease free environment.

(iii) Proper sanitation.

(iv) Mental and social stability.


Q.5     What are the various factors that affect health?

The health of all organisms depends on their surroundings or their environment. The environment includes the physical environment and social environment.

(a) Personal- Which we can do as an individual.

(b) Community- which we can do as a society.


Q.6     Explain how individual health depends on social and mental well-being. 

Social well-being: Cleanliness around the place where we live. No throwing of garbages on roads, not leaving open drain- water lying stagnant etc.

Mental well-being: For good health we have to be happy, social equality and harmony are essential.


Q.7     Define diseases and state the major factors which are the causes of disease. 

The condition of malfunctioning of organ system or systems is called disease. In layman’s language, disease means ‘without ease’. Disease leads to an abnormal condition in which our body or body organs does not work properly.

The major factors for the cause of disease are-

(i) Pathogens(e.g., Virus, bacteria, worms etc)

(ii) Environmental factors (e.g., Pollutants)

(iii) Nutritional factors(e.g., malnutrition)

(iv) Genetic factors (e.g., gene defects)

(v) Hormonal imbalances(e.g., thyroid associated problems, diabetes)

(vi) Metabolic factors(organ failure)


Q.8     Is there any difference between ‘being healthy’ and ‘disease-free’   


Q.9     (i) What is balanced diet?

(ii) What problems will you face if you do not eat a balanced diet?

(i) A diet that contains adequate amounts of fibre (roughage), water and all other necessary nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, vitamins and minerals) required for healthy growth and activity is called balanced diet.

(ii) Lack of balanced diet will lead to the following problems:

(a) Poor maintenance of body tissues and organs.

(b) Lack of proper growth and development of the body.

(c) Lack of energy.

(d) Improper functioning of the various systems of the body.

All this will ultimately lead to some illness.

 

Disease and its causes

 

Q.10    What are first-level causes of the disease? 

Causes of diseases may be immediate (first level cause) or contributory. The first level cause of a disease is the primary reason behind the development of a symptom for a disease. For e.g. – The immediate cause of a person suffering from diarrhoea is the causative agent.


Q.11    What are the body’s defenses against diseases? 

The body has three lines of defence namely-

(i) Skin,

(ii) White blood cells,

(iii) Antibodies (antigens and lymphocytes)


Q.12    Name the disease that can be caused by certain types of bacteria, protozoa and viruses. 

Diarrhoea is the disease that can be caused by certain types of bacteria, protozoa and viruses.


Q.13    What are congenital diseases? Give two examples. 

Congenital diseases refer to diseases or abnormalities present since birth.  It may be due to gene mutations or environmental factors. Ex. Colour blindness, Down’s syndrome, cleft lip etc 


Q.14    Why are signs of a disease more important than its symptoms? 

Signs of a disease are more important than symptoms because signs provide information’s about the possibility of the disease while symptoms are just indicators that there is some abnormality in the body.


Q.15    What were considered to be the primary cause of peptic ulcer initially? Who were awarded Nobel Prize for the discovery of treatment of peptic ulcer? 

The lifestyle of a person was primarily considered to be the causative agent or reason behind this disease. Barry Marshall and Robin Warren discovered that the area of peptic ulcer contained many small curved Bacteria called Helicobacter pylori


Q.16    How can we prevent diseases?

There are two ways, one general and one specific to each disease.The general ways of preventing infections mostly relate to preventing exposure to microbes. Specific ways of prevention deals specifically with each type of diseases. Vaccination is the most common element these types of preventive measures.


Q.17   Which amongst the two diseases: Acute or chronic, has adverse effect on the health of a person? Explain giving a suitable example 

Chronic disease lasts for long period of time so it is more harmful than acute disease.

For example: Cough and cold are acute diseases while tuberculosis is chronic and affects health badly. 


Q.18    How does our body carry out various functions? 

All the cells in our body are grouped separately into tissues. These tissues make up into physiological systems or organ systems that carry out various body functions. Each of the organ systems has specific organs as its parts and each has a particular function.


Q.19    Mention two factors on which severity of disease manifestation depends. 

Severity of disease manifestation depends upon the following factors:

(a) Number of microbes attached to the body.

(b) Immune system of the individual.


Q.20    State any two ways by which infectious diseases can be controlled. 

Infectious diseases can be controlled by:

(i) By maintaining proper hygiene like washing hands before every meal.

(ii) Avoid going to overcrowded places

(iii) By use of vaccination


Q.21    Why is prevention better than cure?

Or

State the consequences, which one has to face while dealing with an infectious disease.

The first is that once someone has a disease, their body functions are damaged and may never recover completely. The second is that treatment will take time, which means that someone suffering from a disease is likely to be bedridden for some time even if we give them proper treatment. The third is that the person suffering from an infectious disease can serve as the source from where the infection may spread to other people


Q.22    Differentiate Congenital Diseases from Acquired ones. 

Congenital :

a) These occur since from birth.

b) These are inherited from the parents to the offspring.

Acquired :

a) It occurs during the lifetime of the person and not from the birth.

b) It does not get inherited. It occurs due to pathogens or due to deficiency of nutrients, hormonal imbalance or due to degeneration of the tissues.


Q.23    What are infectious agents? What are the different infectious agents? 

The microorganisms which spread the disease from one person to another is called infectious agents

The different infectious agents are-

(a) Viruses

(b) Bacteria

(c) Fungi

(d) Protozoans

(e) Multicellular worms.


Q.24    Differentiate between Infectious and non-infectious diseases.

 


Q.25    Difference between Acute diseases and chronic diseases:


Q.26    Broadly classify diseases into two groups giving two examples for each of them.

Or

Difference between communicable and non-communicable disease.    

 


Q.27    What are the immediate and contributory causes of diseases? Explain it with the example of a child suffering from diarrhoea. 

There can be a number of causes for a disease, they can be broadly divided into immediate causes and contributory causes.

The external causes like micro-organisms constitute the immediate causes. Organisms like virus, bacteria, and other micro-organisms can cause diseases in a person. For example, diarrhoea is caused by viral or bacterial infection. Even though a virus can be the immediate cause of a disease, other associated causes might allow the entry of the virus into the body. These causes are known as contributory causes.

Contributory causes: These include the following conditions:

(i) Unhealthy condition: Infectious agents like virus and bacteria enter the body through contaminated food or water. Thus, the consumption of contaminated food or water can be another cause of disease.

(ii) Improper public service: The lack of proper public service is the main reason for the lack of clean drinking water and food.

(iii)      Poverty: Lack of proper nourishment can also lead to the occurrence of diseases in a person

 

Infectious Diseases 

 

Q.28    T.B. is a common abbreviation used for which disease? Who discovered T.B and name the disease causing micro-organism. 

The full form of T.B. is Tuberculosis.  Robert Koch discovered T.B. in 1982. It is caused by the bacterium: 'Mycobacterium tuberculosis'.


Q.29    Name any 3 diseases that are caused by virus. 

Common cold, influenza, dengue fever, and AIDS


Q.30    Name any 3 diseases that are caused by bacteria

Typhoid, fever, cholera, tuberculosis, anthrax


Q.31    Name any 2 diseases that are caused by protozoan 

Malaria, Kala-azar, Sleeping Sickness and Amoebiasis


Q.32    Name the diseases that are caused by helminthes 

Intestinal worm infection, elephantiasis


Q.33    Name the diseases which are caused by fungi. 

Ring worm, Skin infections and Athlete's foot


Q.34    Name any diseases that can be prevented by using vaccines. 

Diphtheria, Pertussis, Tetanus, Measles, Typhoid, Tuberculosis


Q.35    How do microbes enter our body? 

Microbes enter our body through air, water, physical contact and vectors.


Q.36    Name the drug used to cure a person suffering from malaria. Name the source of the drug. 

Quinine, a drug extracted from the bark of the cinchona tree is used to cure a person suffering from malaria.


Q.37    Why are we advised to take bland and nourishing food when we are sick? 

We are advised to take bland and nourishing food so that scarcity (loss) of nutrients caused during sickness may be fulfilled.


Q.38    Ravi suffered from tuberculosis, while Rehman suffered from typhoid. Which disease caused more damage and why? 

Tuberculosis caused more damage. It is a chronic disease. It lasts for a long time and has drastic long term effects on people’s health. Typhoid is an acute disease which lasts for a short duration of time.


Q.39    What are symptoms? 

Symptoms are the indicators that there is some abnormality in the body. In general, symptoms are the problems which a patient feels or notices. For example, cough and breathlessness are symptoms of lung infections.


Q.40    What precautions can you take in your school to reduce the incidence of infectious diseases?

To reduce the incidence of infectious diseases at our school, we can take the following precautions:

(i) Clean, treated and potable drinking water must be consumed.

(ii) School must have clean environment, so that mosquito breeding cannot take place.

(iii) Vaccination programme for particular diseases can also be started at the school level


Q.41    What is the scientific name of the common worm found in the small intestines of humans?

What is the origin of the term ‘vaccination’? 

(i) Ascaris lumbricoides

(ii) ‘Cow’ is ‘vacca’ in Latin, and cowpox is ‘vaccinia’. From these roots, the word‘vaccination’ has come into our usage


Q.42    ‘Influenza or common cold spreads faster and is difficult to control. Explain. 

Influenza and common cold are both communicable viral infections which are spread through air, physical contact, by touching of contaminated surfaces etc. Therefore, the infection spreads very easily from an infected person to a healthy person and the disease develops at a very fast rate. These infections are difficult to control as they are not easily diagnosed so that anti- viral can be administered or given.


Q.43    How does an antibody destroy a bacterium? 

The antibiotics like penicillin commonly block biochemical pathways important for bacteria. Many bacteria make a cell-wall to protect themselves. The antibiotic penicillin blocks the bacterial processes that build the cell- wall.  As a result, the growing bacteria become unable to make cell-walls, and die easily.


Q.44    Match the following columns with correct answers :


Q.45    Why are human cells not affected by penicillin? 

Pencillin blocks the formation of the bacterial cell wall. Animal cells including those of human cells do not have cell-wall such as those found in bacteria. Hence, the antibiotic penicillin would not have a significant effect on human cells.


Q.46    Identify the diseases which spread through the following means. Also name the target organs:

(i) Sexual contact

(ii) Mosquitoes

(iii) From air via nose


Q.47    What is an inflammation? 

Inflammation is one of the responses of organism towards pathogen. Inflammation is the process by which the active immune system recruits some cells to the infected tissue to kill off the disease causing microbes. This recruitment process is called inflammation.As a part of this process, there are local effects such as swelling and pain, and general effects such as fever


Q.48    In many species of mosquitoes the males do not prefer human blood, but females do. State why? 

In many species of mosquitoes the males do not prefer human blood, but females prefer because female mosquitoes require large amount of protein to lay their eggs. So, they feed on human blood which is rich in protein.


Q.49    The disease-causing microbes enter the body through different means. Where do they go then? Do all microbes go to the same tissue or organ, or do they go to different ones? 

Different species of microbes seem to have evolved to home in on different parts of the body. In part, this selection is connected to their point of entry. If they enter through the air via the nose, they are likely to go to the lungs. This is seen in the bacteria causing tuberculosis. If they enter through the mouth, they can stay in the gut lining like typhoid causing bacteria or they can go to the liver, like the viruses that cause jaundice. But this needn’t always be the case. An infection like HIV that comes into the body through the sexual organs will spread to lymph nodes all over the body. Malaria-causing microbes, entering through a mosquito bite, will go to the liver, and then to the red blood cells. The virus causing Japanese encephalitis, or brain fever, will similarly enter through a mosquito bite. But it goes on to infect the brain.


Q.50    List any three reasons why you think you are sick and ought to see a doctor. If only one of these symptoms were present, would you still go to a doctor? Why or why not? 

Symptoms like headache, stomach pain, nausea, vomiting, fever etc make us feel that we are sick and must consult a doctor. It is because any of these symptoms can be the sign of sickness or disease. Ignoring it may lead to increase in the disease.

Therefore, it becomes a necessity to visit the doctor so that the disease could be diagnosed and proper medication could be done.

However, if only one of these symptoms is present, we usually do not visit a doctor. This is because such symptoms do not have much effect on our general health and ability to work. But, if any of these symptoms continue to persist for sometime, then it is advisable to consult a doctor.


Q.51    Why is it necessary to collect garbage regularly? 

It is necessary to collect garbage regularly because if there is great deal of garbage thrown on the streets or if there is open drain water lying stagnant around where we live, then the possibility of poor health increases.


Q.52    What are the principles of treatment of a disease? 

Principles of treatment of disease:

There are two ways to treat an infectious disease:

(i) One would be to reduce the effect of the disease—

(a) By symptomatic treatment   (b) By taking a bed rest.

(ii)   Killing the micro-organisms of infectious agents.


Q.53    State the modes of transmission of each of the following diseases :

(i) Syphilis
(ii) Tuberculosis
(iii) Jaundice
(iv) Japanese encephalitis


Q.54    Why are antibiotics not effective for viral diseases?

Antibiotics affect on life processes of bacteria and inhibit their growth.  On the other hand, virus is just a piece of DNA, not a well defined life form. It is not considered as a living organism.  They can reproduce inside the host cells and do not use biochemical pathways as other microbes (bacteria, fungi etc). That’s why antibiotics not effective for viral diseases.


Q.55    Explain how disease causing microbes spread through air? 

Disease causing microbes can spread through air. During coughing, sneezing or talking many disease causing microbes come out from the body of infected persons and spread through air. When a person happens to breathe these infected droplets gets infected with the disease. Some common air borne diseases are common cold, pneumonia, tuberculosis.


Q.56    Explain how disease causing microbes spread through water? 

Diseases can also be spread through water.  Water gets contaminated with microbes, if  the excreta of  someone  suffering from an infectious gut disease, such as cholera or typhoid, gets mixed with the drinking water used by people living nearby. The cholera-causing microbes will enter new hosts through the water they drink and cause disease in them. Such diseases are more likely to spread in the absence of safe supplies of drinking water


Q.57    State any four ways by which an AIDS virus spreads from an infected person to a healthy person. 

(1)     Blood to blood contact (transfusion).

(2)     From an infected mother to her unborn baby during pregnancy, labour or delivery.

(3)     Through breast feeding.

(4)     Through injection needle that have been used by someone who is infected.


Q.58    List some general ways of prevention of infectious diseases. 

General ways of preventing infectious disease:

(i) Air-borne – We can prevent exposure by providing living condition that is not overcrowded.

(ii) Water-borne – prevent by providing safe drinking water. This is done by treating the water to kill any microbial contamination.

(iii) Vector-borne – We can provide clean environment, which would not allow mosquito breeding.


Q.59    What causes Encephalitis? How does it enter the body? Which organ does it infect? What are the symptoms if this organ is infected? 

- Virus causes encephalitis.

- Through mosquito bite it enters into human body.

- Brain is infected in this disease.

- Headache, fits, vomiting, unconsciousness


Q.60    A person was bitten by a stray dog. After some days his nature gets irritated, he started fearing water.

(i) Name the disease.

(ii) Is there any vaccine available?

(iii) Is there any plan of your local authority for the control of this disease?

(i) Rabies.

(ii) Anti-rabies vaccine.

(iii) Compulsory immunization of pets/dogs with anti-rabies vaccine


Q.61    (i) What is balanced diet?

(ii) What problems will you face if you do not eat a balanced diet ?

(i) A diet that contains adequate amounts of fibre (roughage), water and all other necessary nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, vitamins and minerals) required for healthy growth and activity is called balanced diet.

(ii) Lack of balanced diet will lead to the following problems:

(a) Poor maintenance of body tissues and organs.

(b) Lack of proper growth and development of the body.

(c) Lack of energy.

(d) Improper functioning of the various systems of the body.

All this will ultimately lead to some illness. 


Q.62    Why antibiotics cannot be used for the treatment of AIDS? 

AIDS is caused by virus (HIV- Human Immunodeficiency Virus). Antibiotics do not work against viruses, they only work against bacteria (which are whole, living cells).This is because antibiotics target certain aspects of a cell's machinery like building up of its cell wall, or making proteins necessary for performing vital functions etc. Viruses are different from all other forms of life as they do not have any internal machinery of their own. They enter the host cell and use its machinery for their life processes, thus providing few virus specific targets on which antibiotics can act. Moreover, HIV also has an extremely high rate of mutation which overcomes antiviral drugs with time. Therefore, antibiotics cannot be used for the treatment of AIDS.


Q.63    State the meaning of immunisation. Mention the principle on which it is based. List two diseases for which vaccines are provided under public health program 

Process of developing artificial immunity in a person by giving vaccination against a particular disease is known as immunisation. Immunization is used to prevent diseases caused by microorganisms.

Principle of immunisation: The principle of immunization is based on the memory of the immune system on encountering an infectious agent. On subsequent encounters with the same or related microbe, the response of the immune system is multiplied greatly, leading to quick elimination of the infection.

The diseases that can be prevented by immunisation are: Tetanus, diphtheria, whooping cough, measles, and polio.


Q.64    Why is AIDS considered to be a ‘syndrome’ and not a disease? 

AIDS is caused by a virus called HIV(Human Immunodeficiency Virus). It is acquired by the individual through various modes like infected blood transfusion, sexual contact and using syringes and needles used by others. Once this virus enters the human system, it spreads all over the body lymph nodes and suppresses the immune systems of the body thus making the body susceptible for many group of diseases i.e syndrome (group of diseases). That is reason that AIDS is considered as a syndrome since a group of health problems are characteristic of the disease. It causes individuals to become susceptible to bacterial, viral, fungal, and parasitic infections.

A syndrome can be defined as a group of symptoms that are characteristic of a disorder or disease (but it may be due to multiple diseases or no disease, e.g. an accident). A disease however is more crisply defined as a disorder of a specific organ or body system that arises from heredity, infection, environmental causes, etc.


Q.65    What are the causes, transmission, symptoms and preventive measure of malaria?

Causes of Malaria : -

Malaria is a life- threatening disease caused by a parasite called Plasmodium. The parasite is transmitted to humans by the bite of infected female Anopheles species mosquitoes.

Occasionally malaria is transmitted by blood transfusion. Malaria can also be transmitted from a mother to her foetus.

Symptoms of malaria may include: fever, which may come and go, or may be constant

Chills, profuse sweating, muscle and joint pain are other symptoms

Control : - Malaria can be controlled by taking antimalarial drugs. Most common antimalarial drug is quinine. It is extracted from the bark of Cinchoma tree.

Prevention:

We can only take some precautions like

Remove all unwanted water containers around the houses to prevent breeding of mosquitoes.

While going out always wear long-sleeved shirts and long pants.

Use mosquito repellant spray or creams and by sleeping under mosquito nets.


Q.66    How do antibiotics (e.g. Penicillin) kill bacterial cells but not human cells?

Antibiotic (‘anti’ means against, ‘biotic’ means living) are types of medications that destroy or slow the growth of bacteria. They are often termed as antibacterial. They work against the life processes of bacteria. They commonly block the biochemical pathways important for bacteria. Many bacteria make a cell wall to protect them.  The antibiotic penicillin blocks the bacterial processes that build cell wall. Penicillin works by preventing cells from dividing. It does not allow them to synthesize cell wall, and thus when the cells attempt to duplicate, they rupture and end up killing themselves. Human cells don’t make cell wall, so penicillin cannot have such an effect on humans.


Q.67    Will a person who is already immunized with smallpox vaccine is infected with rabies when bitten by a rabid dog? Does he need to immunize again? 

Vaccines are made using several different processes. They may contain live viruses that have been attenuated (weakened or altered so as not to cause illness); inactivated or killed organisms or viruses; inactivated toxins (for bacterial diseases where toxins generated by the bacteria, and not the bacteria themselves, cause illness); or merely segments of the pathogen (this includes both subunit and conjugate vaccines).

Rabies virus is different from the smallpox virus. The smallpox vaccine contains the “live” vaccinia virus while the vaccine for rabies is made from dead or killed viruses. So,  immunization with smallpox vaccine does not have any effect against the rabies virus, Hence, the immunization with the smallpox vaccine does not induce our immune system to fight against the rabies virus. So, the person needs to immunize with the vaccine effective against the rabies virus.


Q.68    Write the signs, symptoms and preventive measure for Tuberculosis 

Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease caused by bacteria, Mycobacterium Tuberculosis, that are spread through the air from person to person. The TB bacteria are put into the air when a person with TB disease of the lungs or throat coughs, sneezes, speaks, or sings. People nearby may breathe in these bacteria and become infected. The TB bacteria usually attack the lungs, but can attack any part of the body such as the kidney, spine, and brain. If not treated properly, TB disease can be fatal.

Symptoms of TB disease depend on where in the body the TB bacteria are growing. TB disease symptoms may include:

  • A bad cough that lasts 3 weeks or longer
  • Pain in the chest
  • Coughing up blood or sputum (phlegm from deep inside the lungs)
  • Weakness or fatigue
  • Weight loss
  • No appetite
  • Chills
  • Fever
  • Sweating at night

Tuberculosis can also affect other parts of your body, including your kidneys, spine or brain. When TB occurs outside your lungs, signs and symptoms vary according to the organs involved. For example, tuberculosis of the spine may give you back pain, and tuberculosis in your kidneys might cause blood in your urine.

Prevention:

Steps to be followed to help keep your friends and family from getting sick:

- Stay home. Don't go to work or school or sleep in a room with other people during the first few weeks of treatment for active tuberculosis.

- Ventilate the room. Tuberculosis germs spread more easily in small closed spaces where air doesn't move. If it's not too cold outdoors, open the windows and use a fan to blow indoor air outside.

-  Cover your mouth. Use a tissue to cover your mouth anytime you laugh, sneeze or cough. Put the dirty tissue in a bag, seal it and throw it away.

-  Wear a mask. Wearing a surgical mask when you're around other people during the first three weeks of treatment may help lessen the risk of transmission.

-  Finish your entire course of medication-This is the most important step you can take to protect yourself and others from tuberculosis. When you stop treatment early or skip doses, TB bacteria have a chance to develop mutations that allow them to survive the most potent TB drugs. The resulting drug-resistant strains are much more deadly and difficult to treat.

-   Immunisation with BCG vaccine.


Q.69    How Vaccines Prevent Diseases 

Vaccines reduce the risk of infection by working with the body's natural defenses to help it safely develop immunity to disease.

When germs, such as bacteria or viruses, invade the body, they attack and multiply. This invasion is called an infection, and the infection is what causes illness. The immune system then has to fight the infection. Once it fights off the infection, the body is left with a supply of cells that help recognize and fight that disease in the future.

Vaccines help develop immunity by imitating an infection, but this "imitation" infection does not cause illness. It does, however, cause the immune system to develop the same response as it does to a real infection so the body can recognize and fight the vaccine-preventable disease in the future. Sometimes, after getting a vaccine, the imitation infection can cause minor symptoms, such as fever. Such minor symptoms are normal and should be expected as the body builds immunity.


Q.70    Give two symptoms of typhoid and cholera. Name the disease causing micro-organism. 

Typhoid:

Typhoid, also known as typhoid fever or enteric fever, is an infection caused by the bacteria Salmonella typhi. Typhoid is usually transmitted by water or food, in much the same way as cholera.

Symptoms:

Typhoid usually causes a high, sustained fever, often as high as 40°C (104°F), and extreme exhaustion.

Other common symptoms include:

  • constipation
  • cough

Cholera is an acute epidemic infectious disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.

Symptoms include-

The symptoms and signs of cholera are a watery diarrhea

  • Vomiting
  • Rapid heart rate
  • Loss of skin elasticity

Q.71    (a) Which disease is the leading cause of infant mortality? What is its main cause?

(b) Name the disease that can be prevented by DPT immunisation.

(c) In what way does breast-feeding of infants protect them from infectious diseases?

(a) Diarrhoea is the leading cause of infant mortality. Diarrhea or diarrhoea is   the condition of having at least three loose or liquid bowel movements each day. It often lasts for a few days and can result in dehydration due to fluid loss leading leave the body without the water and salts that are necessary for   survival. Most kids who die from diarrhoea actually die from severe       dehydration and fluid loss.

(b) The diseases that can be prevented by DPT immunization are diphtheria, whooping cough and tetanus.

(c) Milk supplied directly from the breast is free of bacteria. Breast-feeding provides the child with essential nutrients and natural antibiotics.

Breastfeeding strengthens the immune system. During nursing, the mother   passes antibodies to the child, which helps the child resist diseases and help improve the normal immune response to certain vaccines.


Q.72    A person is suffering cholera.

What is the immediate cause of cholera? What is the source of infection? Mention two contributory causes.

Immediate cause of cholera is bacterial infection.

Source of infection is contaminated food or water.

Contributory causes are lack of resistance and improper nourishment.

 

Value based questions 

 

Q.1     Your teachers and parents would have often reminded you to use a handkerchief while you are suffering from cold and cough.

Answer the following questions based on the above information:

(a) Why do you think your elders ask you to put handkerchief in front of your mouth while sneezing or coughing?

(b) Which etiquette do you think are being imbibed to you by your elders?

(a) Respiratory droplets from an infected person's coughs or sneezes (these droplets generally travel less than one metre) and touching contaminated surfaces (including hands) and then touching your mouth, nose or eyes.

(b) Hygiene etiquette are being imbibed by our elders in us. Hygiene etiquette involves practices that prevent the spread of illness and disease.


Q.2     In India, we can see people dumping their household garbages and plastic wastes into the drain or rivers instead of dumping them into municipality dustbins.

(a) What are the problems that are likely to arise because of the disposal of garbage into drains and other water bodies?

(b) Do you think that the disposal of garbage into drains is correct way of disposing waste?

(a) The disposal of garbage’s into drains can clog the drain and create water logging. The stagnant water will become breeding grounds for mosquitoes and other insects leading to the spread of various diseases

(b) As a responsible citizen of our country, we should dump waste in the dust bins provided by each municipality thereby reducing the spread of various diseases and will also help to keep the environment clean.



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