NCERT History : The Age of Industrialisation


Activity (Page 104)

Q.1 Give two examples where modern development has led not to progress but to problems. You may like to think of areas related to environmental issues, nuclear weapons or diseases. 

(i) Development in Agriculture : Hybrid seeds, urea and chemical manure have led to the problem of soil sterility, more consumption of water and environmental problems.

(ii) Development in Nuclear Weapons : Modern nuclear weapons are the most destructive because of the radioactive pollution that they spread. Due to this many people die, and many get injured for their whole lives. For example, Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan.

Activity (Page 107)

Q.2 The way in which historians focus on industrialization rather than of small workshops is a good example of how what we believe today about th past is influenced by what historians choose to notice and what they ignore. Note down one event or aspect of your own life which adults such as you parents or teachers may think is unimportant, but which you believe to be important.

Students do themselves.

Q.2 Look at Figs. 4 and 5. Can you see any difference in the way two images show industrialization?  Explain your view briefly. 

1. In figure 4 the Lancashire cotton mil, adds to the beauty of the city due to its lighting system during the evening.

2. In figure 5 the Manchester is shown to have a cluster of industries, that emit lot of smoke. It symbioses environmental pollution.

3. Therefore the difference between the two figure is that of what they symbolize beauty (figure 4) and pollution (figure 5)

Activity (Page 109)

Q.3 Imagine that you are a merchant writing back to a salesman who has been trying to persuade you to buy a new machine. Explain in your letter what you have heard and why you do not wish to invest in the new technology.

Due to under written reasons, that I have gathered on my own experiences, I don’t want to invest in the new technology :

1. It is costly ineffective, not easy to repair and it breaks down frequently.

2. I would prefer to pay low wages to cheap labour rather than buy a costly new machine.

3. Machines produce standard and uniform goods, while customers ask for variety, range colour, specifically designed handmade goods.

Discuss (Page 111)

Q.4  Look  at Figs, 3, 7 and 11, then  reread source B. Explain why many workers were opposed to the use of the Spinning Jenny.   

1.  Spinning Jenny was the machine that made it possible to yarn many spindles from one wheel.

2. Whereas earlier one wheel could yarn only one spindle. At that time all members of a family were employed, and earned.

3. But due to Spinning Jenny Productivity increased, as many spindles could be yearned at one time from one wheel.

4. This led to increase in unemployment.

Therefore many workers were opposed to the use of spinning Jenny.


Write in Brief :

Q.1 Explain the following :

(a) Women workers in Britain attacked the spinning jenny.

(b) In the seventeenth century merchants from towns in Europe began employing peasants and artisans within the villages.

(c) The port of Surat declined by the end of eighteenth century.

(d) The East India Company appointed gomasthas to supervise weavers in India    

1. Women workers in Britain attacked the spinning Jenny because it could spin many spindles with one wheel. This increased the productivity but also led to decrease in employment of women for spinning. Angry women, therefore attacked the machine.

2. The trade and commerce guild controlled market, raw material employees, production of goods in the towns. This created problems for merchants who wanted to increase production by employing more men. Therefore they turned to peasants and artisan who lived in villages.

3. By the end of eighteenth century port of Bombay was developed by the European colonies. Thus, as the latter controlled sea trade of export, they didn’t want to use the old Surat port, Therefore the sea trade from surat declined by the end of eighteenth century.

4. Weavers in India not only produced coarser cloth for the East India Company, but also for other European companies as well as local Indian merchants. The East India Company wanted to control the cloth production and trade monopoly. Therefore , it appointed gomastha to supervise weaves and gave latter the advance loans to buy raw materials.

Q.2  Write True of False against each statement.

(a) At the end of nineteenth century 80 per cent of the total workforce in Europe was employed in the technologically advanced industrial sector.

(b) The international market for fine textiles was dominated by India till the eighteenth century.

(c) The American civil war resulted in the reduction of cotton exports from India.

(d) The introduction of fly shuttle enabled handloom workers to improve their  productivity.

(a) False          (b) True           (c) False                       (d) True

Q.3 Explain what is meant by proto-industralisation.   

1. “Proto” means the first or early form of something.

2. By proto- industriall- sation we mean the period in which Europe and England produced good for the international market , on a very large – scale , even before there were factories.

3. The handmade product were produced for the industrial market, in the proto- industrial times.


Q.4 Why did some industrialists in nineteenth century Europe prefer hand labour over machines?

Some industrialists in nineteenth century Europe preferred hand labour over machines due to following reasons:

1. Machines were costly, ineffective, hard to repair and needed capital investments.

2. Labour was cheaply available at low wages.

3. Market demands of variety of designs and colour and specific length could not be fulfilled by machine made clothes. It could be fulfilled only by handmade clothes. This needed labour.

Q.2  How did the East India Company procure regular supplies of cotton and silk textiles from Indian weavers? 

1. The East India Company grave advance loans to the weavers to buy raw materials. In this way the permanently engaged weavers fell in the trap of debt.

2. Also the company employed go mas this who supervised the production of cotton and silk textiles at the weaver’s end.

3. He watched if weavers are not working for any other European company or local Indian merchants.

Hence in these ways the East India Company procured regular supplies of cotton and silk textiles from Indian weavers.

Q.3  Imagine that you have been asked to write an article for an encyclopedia on Britain and the history of cotton. Write your piece using information from the entire chapter.    

1. Britain had successfully controlled and dominated the trade in cotton (raw material), cotton fabrics of coarser or fine varities.

2. It had established markets all over its colonies for selling the Manchester made cotton textiles, which was cheaper than the handmade cotton clothes.

3. Britain had really found ways to make enormous profits from the trade in cotton.

4. The East India Company indebted Indian weavers and supervised them with the help of gomasthas. The ensured regular supply of both handmade fine variety of cotton fabric as well as raw cotton.

5. Within Britain, the industrial growth began with the development of cotton textile mills at various places.

Hence, Britain , had enjoyed a good position in world economic history for more than five centuries, due to the control of cotton trade.

Q.4  Why did the industrial production in India increase during the First World War?

India witnessed increased Indus – trial production during the First World War due to following reasons:

1. British industries began to produce for war. Hence, they stopped exporting goods or clothes for colonial market in India.

2. It was a good opportunity for India industries to fill in empty India markets with their products. It was done so, Therefore, industrial production increased.

3. Also the British colonial govern- ment asked Indian factories to supply war needs ; jute bags, clothe for army uniforms tents and leather boots, horse and mule saddle , etc.

4. The increased demands of variety of products led to the setting up of new factories and multiple shifts in the old ones.

5. Many new workers were employed and everyone was made to work longer hours.

All this led to boom in the industrial production in India, during the First World War.


Q.5  Select any one industry in your region and find out its history. How has the technology changed? Where do workers came from? How are the products advertised and marketed? Try and talk to the employers and some workers to get their views about the industry’s history.

[Hints :]

1. Students can choose any neighboring industry in their region locality. For example in Gurgaon, Maruti cars are manufactured.

2. Students can explore the technological changes that took place in car manufacturing industry. For example, Henry Ford introduced “Assembly Line” in car manufacturing that increased car production many a times.

3. In gurgaon Maruti- factory, for example, most of the workers come from Delhi and Gurgaon.

4. The advertisements of various models of Maruti car are frequently telecaster on television. Once can find them in newspapers, magazines, public places and hoarding etc. The cars are marketed by agencies, or showroom owners. You can also personally interview employers and workers of Maruti company.

Additional Questions

Short Answer Type Questions (30 Words)

Q.1  What is meant by proto – industrialization?    

1. The proto- industrialization was the phase before the industrialization.

2. During this England and Europe produced industrial goods on a large- scale even before the factories were established there.

Q.2   Which city of England became “the finishing centre”?

1. London the capital of England, was a sea- port also.

2. It became the finishing centre. The goods from all over England were brought here to be finished.

Short Answer Type Questions (60-80 Words)

Q.3   Why did merchants choose countryside for production of clothes rather than town?  

1. During the 17th and 18th centuries, there existed urban crafts and trade guids in the towns of England.

2. These guids prevented the expanded production within towns.

3. They not only controlled production but also trained crafts people, regulated competition and prices, and restricted the entry of new people into the trade.

4. Rulers granted different guilds the monopoly right to produce and trade in specific products.

5. It was therefore difficult for new merchants to set up business in town. So they turned to the countryside.

Q.4   During the proto- industrial phase, what did the merchant clothier in England do?

The merchant clothier in England did following things :

1. He purchased wool from a wool stapler.

2. He carried wool to the spinners.

3. The yarn (thread) that was spun was taken in subsequent stages of production to weavers, fullers and then to dyers.

4. Then the finishing was done in London and cloth was sold to the export merchant.

Long Answer Type Question (100 – 125 Words)

Q.5 In the mid- 19th century Britain, “Handmade products were produced more than the machine products.” Why?

The production of handmade product was hight than the machine products in the mid- 19th century Britain because of the following reasons :

1. Handmade products had larger range than the machine products.

2. Machines produced only uniform or standardized designs or goods for mass market. Whereas, the demand was for goods with intricate designs and specific shapes, which required human skill and not the mechanical technology.

3. In the Victorian Britain, the upper classes, the aristocrats and the bourgeoisie preferred things produced by hand.

4. Handmade products came to symbolize refinement and class.

5. They were better finished, individually produced and carefully designed.


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