# Metal and Non Metal : Complete Set Question

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This set of questions contains all the possible concepts
which could be asked in the examination

Physical properties of metals and non metals

Q.1 (a) Name two solid metals and two non-metals along with their symbols?

(b) Name two metals which are found in nature in the free state.

(a) Solid metals :

(i) Gold (Au)

(ii) Silver (Ag)

Solid non-metals :

(i) Carbon (C)

(ii) Sulphur (S)

(b) Gold and silver

Q.2 Name a non – metal which is lustrous and a metal which is non– lustrous?

Iodine is a non-metal which is lustrous, lead is a metal which is non-lustrous.

Q.3 Metals generally occur in solid state. Name and write symbol of a metal that exists in liquid state at room temperature?

Metals are generally solid at room temperature with an exception of Mercury(Hg)  which is liquid.

Q.4 Which of the following two metals will melt at body temperature (37 °C)
Gallium, Magnesium, Caesium and Aluminium?

Gallium and Caesium.

Q.5 Why school bells are made up of metals?

School bells are made up of metals because metals are sonorous.

Q.6 Why electrical wires are made up of copper?

Electrical wires are made up of Copper because it is a very good conductor of electricity.

Q.7 Define the term malleability and ductility?

Malleability : Property of a substance due to which it can be beaten into thin sheet. Metals are malleable while non-metals are not.

Ductility: Property of a substance by which it can be drawn into thin wires.Metals are ductile while non-metals are not.

Q.8 State any five differences between the physical properties of metals and non-metals?

• Conduction of electricity :  Metals are good conductors of electricity while non-metals are bad conductors of electricity with an exception of graphite (an allotrope of carbon).

• Appearance of surface : Metals, in their pure state, have a shining surface also called metallic-lustre. Non-metals are generally non-lustrous with an exception of iodine. Metals on reacting with gases in atmosphere lose its shiny appearance when kept in air for a long time.

• Hardness : Metals are generally hard with the exceptions of sodium and potassium that can be cut by knife.

• Melting and boiling points : Generally metals have melting and boiling points except for sodium, potassium, mercury, cesium and gallium.

• State at room temperature : Metals are generally solid at room temperature with an exception of mercury which is liquid. Non-metals are present in all three states: solids, liquids and gaseous, at room temperature.

Q.9  Define the term sonority?

Sonority : Property of producing sound on striking a hard surface. Metals are sonorous while non-metals are not.

Q.10 A non metal X exists in two different from Y and Z. Y is the hardest natural substance, whereas Z is a good conductor of electricity. Identify X, Y and Z?

‘X’ is carbon, ‘Y’ is diamond as it is the hardest natural substance and ‘Z’ is graphite as it is good conductor of electricity.

Q.11 Write down the exceptions in physical properties of metal and non-metal?

Exceptions in Physical Properties

(i) Graphite, a non-metal, is a good conductor of electricity.

(ii) Iodine is a lustrous non-metal.

(iii) Diamond, an allotrope of carbon, which is a non-metal is the hardest substance while sodium and potassium, being metals are soft enough to be cut by knife.

(iv) Mercury, which is a metal, is liquid at room temperature while rests are solids.

(v) Sodium, potassium, mercury, cesium and gallium are metals with low melting and boiling points.

(vi) Diamond is the non-metal with high melting and boiling point.

(vii) Sodium, potassium and lithium are metals with low density.

Chemical Properties of Metals

Q.12 A green layer is gradually formed on a copper plate left exposed to air for a week in a bathroom. What could this green substance be?

A green layer is gradually formed on a copper plate left exposed to air for a week in a bathroom due to the formation of basic copper carbonate.

Q.13 Why does calcium float in water?

Calcium float in water because bubbles of hydrogen gas is formed, which sticks to surface of calcium, therefore it floats.

Q.14  Element ‘M’ forms a chloride with the formula MCl2 which is solid with high melting point. To which group of the periodic Table does the element ‘M’ belong?

‘M’ belongs to group 2.

Q.15 What is the valency of phosphorus with atomic number 14?

Its valency is equal to 4.

Q.16  Arrange the following metals in the decreasing order of  reactivity :
Na, K, Cu, Ag ?

K > Na > Cu > Ag

Q.17  What is the valency of phosphorus with atomic number 15?

Phosphorus has valency 3.

Q.18 Explain why copper utensils get tarnished after some time?

Copper utensils get tarnished after some time because copper reacts with moist carbon dioxide in the air and slowly loses its shiny brown surface and gains a green coat.

Q.19 Give reason why Aluminium is not found in native state?

It is because Aluminium is a very reactive element.

Q.20 Give reason why electrical wires are coated with plastic?

Electrical wires are made up of copper. Copper react with moist carbon-dioxide in the air and slowly loses its shiny brown surface and gains a green coat. So, these are coated with plastic.

Q.21 Blue colour of copper sulphate disappear when some aluminium powder is added in it. Give the reason ?

Aluminium is more reactive than copper. It displaces copper from copper sulphate solution and forms aluminium sulphate, leaving copper behind. Hence, the blue colour of copper sulphate disappear when some aluminium powder is added in it.

Q.22 What is the valency of an element with atomic number 35?

Its valency is 1.

Q.23 What is anodizing?

Anodizing : Process of forming a thick oxide layer of Aluminium that makes it resistant to further corrosion.

Q.24  What are amphoteric oxides?

Metal oxides are basic in nature. Some metal oxides, such as Aluminium oxide, zinc oxide, etc., which react with both acids as well as bases to produce salts and water are known as amphoteric oxides.

Q.25 Why potassium and sodium kept immersed in kerosene?

Metals such as potassium and sodium react so vigorously with oxygen that they catch fire if kept in the open. So to protect them they are kept immersed in kerosene oil.

Q.26 Name the metal which reacts with a very dilute HNO3 to evolve hydrogen gas?

Magnesium reacts with a very dilute HNO3 to evolve hydrogen gas.

Q.27 Which gas is liberated when a metal reacts with an acid? How will you test the presence of this gas?

When a metal reacts with an acid Hydrogen gas is liberated. we will test the presence of this gas by bringing a burning matchstick near to it and observe that Hydrogen will burn explosively with ‘pop’ sound.

Q.28 What will be the product when metal react with oxygen?

Almost all metals combine with oxygen to form metal oxides.

Metal + Oxygen → Metal oxide

For e.g. 2Cu + O2 → 2CuO

Q.29  Name the metals that react with cold water vigorously?

Metals like sodium & potassium react with cold water vigorously

Q.30 Name the metals that react with hot water?

Metals like magnesium react with hot water

Q.31 Name the metals that react with steam?

Iron, zinc reacts with steam

Q.32  Name the metals that do not react with water?

Lead, silver and gold do not react with water at all.

Q.33 What will be the products when metal reacts with acids?

Most metals react with acids to give a salt and hydrogen gas.

Metal + Dilute acid → Salt + Hydrogen

Q.34 (a) Define reactivity series of metals. Arrange the metals gold, copper, iron, zinc and magnesium in their increasing order in reactivity?

(b) What will you observe when:

(i) Some zinc pieces are put into copper sulphate solution?

(ii) Some silver pieces are put into green coloured ferrous sulphate solution?

(a) The reactivity series is a list of metals arranged in the order of their decreasing reactivities.

Gold< Copper< Iron<Zinc<Magnesium.

(b) (i) Zinc displaces copper from copper sulphate solution. The blue colour of the solution becomes colourless.

(ii) No reaction will occur.

Q.35 Define Aquaregia?

Aquaregia :

• Freshly prepared mixture of concentrated hydrochloric acid and concentrated nitric acid in the ratio of 3:1.

• Is a highly corrosive, fuming liquid and one of the few reagents able to dissolve gold and platinum.

Q.36 (a) Name the particles which are responsible for conduction of electricity in a solution. Which type of compounds give rise to these particles in solution?

(b) Rain water conducts electricity while distilled water not. Give reason.

(c) Why ionic compounds have high melting and boiling points.

(d) Why ionic compounds are solid and somewhat hard.

(a)

• Positive ions and negative ions.

• Ionic compounds

(b) Rain water contains dissolved ions, which help in conducting electricity, whereas distilled water does not contain any ion. So, it does not conduct electricity.

(c) Ionic compound have high melting and boiling points because a considerable amount of energy is required to break the strong inter-ionic attraction.

(d) They are solid and somewhat hard because of the strong force of attraction between the positive and negative ions.

Q.37 (a) What is ionic compound?

(b) Describe ionic compounds on the basis of the following properties:

(i) Strong force of attraction between positive and negative ions.

(ii) Solubility of compounds in water.

(iii) Electrical conductivity.

(a) The compounds formed by the transfer of electrons from a metal to a non-metal are known as ionic or electrovalent compounds.

(b)

(i) Due to strong force of attraction between the positive and negative ions, ionic compounds are solids. These compounds are generally brittle and break  into pieces when pressure is applied.

(ii) Ionic compounds are generally soluble in water.

(iii) Ionic compounds in the solid state do not conduct electricity in molten state, they do not conduct electricity.

Q.38 Write down the properties of ionic compound?

Properties of ionic compound:

Physical Nature : Solid and hard due to strong inter-ionic force of attraction; generally brittle.

Melting and boiling points : High melting and boiling points since a considerable force is required to break the strong inter-ionic attraction.

Solubility : Generally soluble in water but insoluble in solvents such as kerosene, petrol, etc.

Conduction of electricity : Conducts electricity through solution due to involvement of charged particles (ions). As movement of ions is not possible in solid state, due to rigid structure, do not conduct electricity. In molten state this movement is overcome due to heat and thus conducts electricity.

Occurrence and obtaining of Metals

Q.39 Define the term Ore?

Ore : Mineral that contains high percentage of metal that can be extracted profitably from it.

Q.40 Define the term gangue?

Ores mined from earth contain large amount of impurities such as sand, soil, etc. called gangue.

Q.41 Can we take anode made up of pure metals and cathode made up of impure metal during electro-refining? Justify?

No, we cannot take anode made up of pure metals and cathode made up of impure metal during electro-refining. Anode should be made up of impure metal because on passing the current through the electrolyte, the pure metal from the anode dissolves into the electrolyte.

Q.42 Define the term mineral?

Mineral :  The elements or compounds, which occur naturally in the earth’s crust.

Q.43 Describe briefly the method to obtain mercury from cinnabar. Write the chemical equation for the reactions involved in the process?

Cinnabar is the main ore of mercury. Mercury is obtained from its ore by Roasting. when cinnabar is heated in air, it is first converted into mercuric oxide. Mercuric oxide is then reduced to mercury on further heating.

2HgS(s) +3 O2 (g) + Heat → 2HgO(s) + 2SO2 (g)

$2HgO\left( s \right) + Heat \to 2Hg\left( l \right) + {O_2}\left( g \right)$

Q.44 What is “ Thermite welding” ? Give balanced chemical equation of reaction involved in this process?

Thermite welding involves reaction between aluminium and iron oxide to form aluminium oxide and iron, releasing large amount of heat.

Fe2O3(s) + 2Al(s) → 2Fe(l) + Al2O3(s) + Heat.

Q.45 Explain roasting process?

Roasting is a process of converting sulphide ores into oxides by heating strongly in the presence of excess air.

Roasting :  2ZnS(s) + 3O2 (g) → 2ZnO(s) + 2SO2 (g)

Q.46 Define the term ‘anode mud’. Name the electrode made of pure metal?

Soluble impurities go into solution; insoluble impurities settle at the bottom of anode called as anode mud. Pure metal from electrolyte is deposited at cathode.

Q.47 Define the process calcination?

Calcination is a process of converting carbonate ores into oxides by heating strongly in limited air.

Calcination : ZnCO3 (s) →ZnO(s) + CO2 (g).

Q.48 State the relation between ore and mineral?

Every ore is a mineral but every mineral is not an ore.

Q.49 (a) Name metal which does not stick to glass.

(b) Name the metal which is commonly used in thermite welding.

(c) What is nature of Zinc oxide?

(a) Mercury

(b) Aluminium

(c) Basic

Q.50  Distinguish between roasting and calcinations?

Q.51 What is meant by concentration of an ore? Why is it necessary to concentrate ore before processing? Name an ore of mercury?

A process of removing unwanted impurities like, sand, soil etc present in an ore  is called concentration of ore. We need to concentrate the ore so that the earthly impurities do not interfere in the process of extraction. Cinnabar is the common ore of mercury.

Q.52 Name two metals which are purified by electrolytic refining. Mention the anode, Cathode and the electrolyte used in the refining process. At which electrode would the pure metal be deposited?

• Copper and Zinc are two metals which are purified by electrolytic refining.

• At Anode – Impure Metal

• At Cathode – Pure Metal

• Electrolyte – Solution of the metal salt

• Pure metal from the electrolyte is deposited on the cathode.

Q.53 Explain enrichment of ore?

Enrichment of ore :

• Ores mined from earth contain large amount of impurities such as sand, soil, etc. called gangue.

• Prior to the extraction of metal, based on the differences between the physical or chemical properties of gangue and the ore, different processes are used to remove gangue. These processes are used for enrichment of ore.

Q.54 Explain the process of extraction of metals low in the reactivity series?

Extraction of metals low in the Activity Series :

These metals are generally very unreactive.

Oxides of these can be reduced to metals by heating alone.

For e.g.  2HgS(s) + 3O2 (g) + Heat → 2HgO(s) + 2SO2 (g)

Q.55 Explain the process of extraction of metals middle in the series?

Extraction of Metals in the middle of the Activity Series :

It’s easy to obtain a metal from its oxide compared to its sulphide and carbonate.

• Roasting is a process of converting sulphide ores into oxides by heating strongly in the presence of excess air.

• Calcination is a process of converting carbonate ores into oxides by heating strongly in limited air.

Roasting

2ZnS(s) + 3O2 (g) → 2ZnO(s) + 2SO2 (g)

Calcination

ZnCO3 (s) →ZnO(s) + CO2 (g)

• Metal oxides are then reduced to corresponding metals using suitable reducing reagents such as coke, aluminum, etc. on basis of their reactivities using displacement reactions.

• These displacement reactions are highly exothermic; hence metals are produced in molten state.

• Thermit reaction: Reaction of iron oxide with aluminium used to join railway tracks or cracked machine parts.

Fe2O3(s) + 2Al(s) → 2Fe(l) + Al2O3(s) + Heat

Q.56 Explain Extraction of metals high in the Activity Series?

Extraction of metals high in the Activity Series:

Since these are very reactive metals and thus cannot be obtained by displacement reactions. These metals are obtained by electrolytic refining.

They are generally obtained by electrolysis of their molten chlorides. Metals are deposited at cathode (negatively charged), while chlorine is liberated at anode.

At cathode Na+ + e– → Na

At anode 2Cl- → Cl2 + 2e-

Aluminium is obtained by electrolytic reduction of aluminium oxide.

Q.57 (i) What is electrolytic  decomposition?

(ii) Give two uses of electrolytic decomposition reaction?

(i) Electrolytic decomposition means breaking into ions when electricity is passed in a solution.

(ii) Two uses of Electrolytic decomposition reaction :

• It is also used in electroplating

• It is used to refine metals.

Q.58 (a) Define metallurgy?

(b) Define the term 'oxidation' ?

(a)The process of extraction of metals from their ores is called metallurgy.

(b) Oxidation means addition of oxygen to a substance or removal of hydrogen from a substance.

Q.59 Explain electrolytic refining?

Electrolytic Refining :

Metals obtained by various reduction processes contain impurities. The most widely used method for refining impure metals is electrolytic refining.

Apparatus setup :

At Anode – Impure Metal

At Cathode – Pure Metal

Electrolyte – Solution of the metal salt

At Anode : Pure metal from anode dissolve into electrolyte.

At Cathode : An equivalent amount of pure metal from electrolyte is deposited at cathode.

Soluble impurities go into solution; insoluble impurities settle at the bottom of anode called as anode mud.

Corrosion

Q.60 Define the term corrosion?

The eating up of metal by the action of gases, moisture or acids present in air is called Corrosion.

Q.61 How can we prevent iron being corroded?

Prevention of corrosion of Iron :

•Painting

• Applying grease

• Galvanization: Process of protecting steel and iron from rusting by coating them with thin layer of zinc.

• Chromium plating/ tin plating

• Alloying: Improve the properties of a metal.

Q.62  Define the term alloy?

Alloy is a homogeneous mixture of a metal and two or more other metals or non-metals.

Q.63 How can be alloys prepared?

It is prepared by melting primary metal first and then dissolving other in definite proportion and then cooling to room temperature.

Q.64 Write down the properties of alloys?

It has better properties than metals like in case of strength, corrosion and lower electrical conductivity& melting points.

Q.65 Give composition of the alloy :

(i) Stainless steel

(ii) Brass

(iii) Bronze

(iv) Solder

(v) Amalgam

(vi) Alloy of gold?

(i) Stainless Steel – Alloy of Fe, Ni and Cr

(ii) Brass – Alloy of Cu and Zn

(iii) Bronze – Alloy of Cu and Sn

(iv) Solder – Alloy of Pb and Sn

(v) Amalgam – Any alloy containing mercury

(vi) Alloy of Gold – Contains gold and silver/copper.

Q.66 Name the metal which

(a) Becomes blackish after certain time

(b) Developes green coating on exposure to air

(c)  Does not corrode at all

(d) Is used in making steel

(e) Is non-lustrous?

(a) Silver

(b) Copper

(c)  Platinum

(d) Nickel and chromium

(e) sodium

Q.67 (a) Give two conditions necessary for rusting of iron.

(b) How the rusting can be prevented by alloying iron with other metal?

(c) Why the aluminium becomes dull after sometime?

(a) moisture and air both are necessary for rusting of iron.

(b) iron is mixed with nickel and chromium which prevent it from rusting

(c) it is due to the formation of aluminium oxide. This is a protective layer but makes aluminium look dull.

Q.68 Explain why alloy have usually less electrical conductivity?

Alloy is a homogeneous mixture of two or more metals or a metal and a non-metal. It is why it has less electrical conductivity.

Q.69 Give reason why it is necessary to paint iron grills frequently?

To prevent rusting, it is necessary to paint grills frequently.

Q.70 What do you mean by ‘galvanisation’ ? Why it is done?

The process of coating a thin layer of Zinc on iron articles is called galvanization. it is done to prevent corrosion.

Q.71 Why do aluminium sheets not corrode easily?

Aluminium does not corrode easily because on exposure to air, its surface is coated with a thin layer of aluminium oxide which is protective and non-reactive.

Q.72 What is the formula of rust?

Fe2O3 xH2O

Q.73 Why solder is used for welding electrical wires together?

Solder is an alloy of lead and tin. Low melting point of solder makes it suitable for welding electrical wires.

Q.74 Why stainless steel does not rust easily?

Nickel and chromium is added into iron to get stainless steel. These element prevent it from rusting.

Q.75  Why silver, gold and platinum are used to make jewellery?

They are very less reactive metals and do not corrode. They also possess a brilliant lusture. So, they are used in making Jewellery.

Q.76 Gold ornaments retain their luster even after several years of use. Give reason.

Gold is very less reactive. So, it is able to retain its lusture even after several years of use.

Value Based Questions : -

Q.1 The way metals like sodium, magnesium and iron react with air and water is an indication of their relative positions in the ‘reactivity series’. Is this statement true? Justify your answer with examples?

This statement is true because they react with air and water at different rates and in different conditions. While sodium reacts spontaneously and violently with air and cold water, magnesium reacts less vigorously with air and only in hot conditions with water. Iron reacts with air very slowly and reacts with steam to form iron oxide and hydrogen.

Q.2 Shubham helps his friend Rahul in studies. Shubham is topper in the class. Rahul also improved his performance. They like each other and they are good friends.

(a) What values are possessed by Shubham?

(b) What type of bond exists between Rahul and Shubham?

(c) Why are ionic bonds strong?

(a) Shubham has helping nature

(b) It is like ionic bond

(c) Ionic bonds are strong due to strong force of attraction between oppositely charged ions.

Q.3 Arti while going on a walk with her father found some men working near the railway track. She asked her father what those men were doing near the rails. Her father being a chemistry teacher told her that they were joining the rails by a reaction which produced large amount of heat. She wanted to know more about that reaction. What would be her father's answer for her following questions ?

(i) Name the reaction.

(ii) What is the chemical equation involved in the reaction ?

(iii) What is the value exhibited by Arti ?

(i) Thermit reaction

(ii) $F{e_2}{O_3}\left( s \right) + 2Al\left( s \right) \to 2Fe\left( l \right) + A{l_2}{O_3}\left( s \right) + Heat$

(c) Arti is curious to know about the activities happening around her and she also has an interest science.

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