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Matter In Our Surroundings : NCERT Intext Questions


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Page 3

Q.1     Which of the following are matter?
Chair, air, love, smell, hate, almonds, thought, cold, cold-drink, smell of perfume.
Sol.     Chair, air, almonds, and cold-drink are matters. Explanation: Things that occupy space and have some mass are called matter. Since chair, air, almonds and cold-drink occupy some space and have some mass, so these are matter.


Q.2     Give reasons for the following observation: The smell of hot sizzling food reaches you several meters away, but to get the smell from cold food you have to go close.
Sol.     Smell of anything comes because of gases emanating from the given thing. The smell reaches to us because of diffusion of gas. The rate of diffusion increases with increase in temperature. This happens because of higher kinetic energy due to higher temperature. That is why smell of hot sizzling food reaches to us from several feet. On the other hand, the kinetic energy of gases emanating from cold food is low because of lower temperature. Due to this, we need to move closer to a cold food to take its smell.


Q.3     A diver is able to cut through water in a swimming pool. Which property of mater does this observation show?
Sol.     Water is also a matter. We know that particles of matter have space between them. In case of fluids, the space between particles is large enough and due to this it becomes easier for a diver to cut through water in a swimming pool.


Q.4     What are the characteristics of the particles of matter?
Sol.     Characteristics of the particles of matter:
               -  The particles of matter are very small.
            -   The particles of matter have space between them.
            -   The particles of matter are moving constantly.
            -   The particles of matter attract one another.


Page 6

Q.1     The mass per unit volume of a substance is called density. (Density = mass / volume) Arrange the following in order of increasing density
air, exhaust from chimneys, honey, water, chalk, cotton and iron.
Sol.     Air < Exhaust from chimneys < cotton < Water < Honey < Chalk < Iron
Explanation : Air is the mixture of gases. Chimney exhaust is also a mixture of gases; along with some heavier particles, such as ash. This makes the density of chimney exhaust more than air. Cotton is a porous solid and which has lot of air trapped within pores. This makes its volume more than water. Therefore, it is less dense than water.

Q.2     (a) - Tabulate the differences in the characteristics of states of matter.
Sol.

Difference in the characteristics of states of matter
Solid  Liquid Gas
Definite  Indefinite shape Indefinite shape 
Definite volume Definite volume  Indefinite volume
Maximum force of attraction
between particles
Less forces of attraction
between particles compare
to solid 
Negligible force of attraction
between particles 
Particles are closely packed Particles are loosely packed
compared to solid 
Particles are loosely packed
Cannot be compressed Cannot be compressed  Can be compressed  
Kinetic energy of particles is
minimum
Kinetic energy of particles
is more than solid 
Kinetic energy of particles 
is maximum
Particles cannot move rather
they vibrate only at  their fixed
position 
Particles can slide over one 
another 
Particles can move freely
Highest density cannot flow  Density is lower than solid  Lowest density
Cannot flow  Flow  Flow 

 

             (b) - Comment upon the following: rigidity, compressibility, fluidity, filling a gas container, shape, kinetic energy and density
Sol.     Rigidity: The greatest force of attraction between particles and close packing of particles make solids rigid. Rigidity is one of the unique properties of solids. Because of rigidity, a solid can resist from getting distorted. Because of rigidity a solid has definite shape and volume. Rigidity is negligible in fluid and gas.

Compressibility: Compressibility is one of the most important characteristics of gas. Because of lot of space between particles, a gas can be compressed to a great extent.

Liquid and solid cannot be compressed because of the least space between their particles.

Fluidity: The ability to flow is called fluidity. The less force of attraction and more space between particles make liquid and gas to flow. That’s why liquid and gas are called fluid.

Filling of a gas container: Liquids do not fill a gas container completely, while gases fill the gas container completely in which it is kept. This is because the particles of gas can move in all the directions.

Shape: Solids have fixed shape. Liquid and gas take the shape of the container in which they are kept. This happens because of less force of attraction and more kinetic energy between particles of liquids and negligible force of attraction and highest kinetic energy between particles of gas.

Kinetic energy: The kinetic energy of particles of solid is the minimum. They only vibrate at their fixed position. The kinetic energy of particles of liquid is more than that of solid. But they can slide above one another. The kinetic energy of particles of gas is the maximum.

Density: The mass per unit volume of a substance is called density. The density of solid is highest, of liquid is less than solid and of gas is minimum.


Q.3     Give reasons
           (a) A gas fills completely the vessel in which it is kept.
Sol.     The force of attraction between particles of gas is negligible. Because of this, particles of gas move in all directions. Thus, a gas fills the vessel completely in which it is kept.

           (b) A gas exerts pressure on the walls of the container.
Sol.     Because of negligible force of attraction between particles of gas, the particles of gas have the highest kinetic energy. These properties enable the particles of gas to move in all directions and hit the walls of container from all sides. Because of this a gas exerts pressure on the walls of the container in which it is kept.

           (c) A wooden table should be called a solid.
Sol.     A wooden table has fixed shape and fixed volume, which are the main characteristics of solid. Thus a wooden table should be called a solid.

           (d) We can easily move our hand in air but to do the same through a solid block of wood we need a karate expert.
Sol.     Since, air is gas, so its particles are loosely packed and there is negligible force of attraction between its particles. Because of that we can easily move our hand in air.
But wood is a solid, so the force of attraction between its particles is greatest. The particles of wooden block are closely packed. That’s why we cannot move our hand through a solid block of wood. However a karate expert can exert required pressure to break the great force of attraction of the particles of a solid wooden block.


Q.4     Liquids generally have lower density as compared to solids. But you must have observed that ice floats on water. Find out why.
Sol.     During freezing of water, some space between the particles of water is left vacant with some air trapped between them. These empty spaces having air in them makes the density of ice; lower than that of water. That’s why ice floats on water.


Page 9

Q.1     Convert the following temperature to Celsius scale.
           (a)300 K
           (b) 573 K
Sol.     (a) Temperature on Kelvin scale = Temperature on Celsius scale + 273 Therefore,
Temperature on Celsius scale = Temperature of Kelvin scale – 273
Hence, Temperature on Celsius scale = 300K – 273 = 27⁰C

Sol.     (b) Temperature on Kelvin scale = Temperature on Celsius scale + 273
Therefore, Temperature on Celsius scale = Temperature of Kelvin scale – 273
Hence, Temperature on Celsius scale = 573K – 273 = 300⁰C


Q.2     What is the physical state of water at
            (a) 250⁰C
            (b) 100⁰C
Sol.      (a) Since, water boils at 100⁰C, thus it is in gaseous state at 250⁰C.
Sol.      (b) Since, water boils at 100⁰C, thus at 100⁰C water is in transition phase, i.e. in both liquid and gaseous states.


Q.3     For any substance why does the temperature remain constant during the change of state.
Sol.     During the change of state of any substance, the heat supplied or released is utilised in phase change. Such heat is called latent heat. So, the temperature of any substance remains constant during the change of state.


Q.4     Suggest a method to liquefy atmospheric gas.
Sol.     Atmospheric gas is liquefied by increasing pressure and decreasing temperature.


Page 10

Q.1     Why does a desert cooler cool better on a hot dry day?
Sol.      Desert cooler works on the basis of evaporation. In hot and dry days the moisture level is very low in atmosphere which increases the rate of evaporation. Because of faster evaporation, cooler works well. That’s why desert cooler cool better on a hot dry day.


Q.2     How does the water kept in an earthen pot (matka) become cool during summer?
Sol.     Water from porous wall of earthen pot evaporates continuously, which lowers the temperature of water kept in the earthen pot. In summer moisture level is very low in the atmosphere, which increases the rate of evaporation as evaporation is inversely proportional to the moisture level in atmosphere. That is why in summer water kept in earthen pot becomes cool.


Q.3     Why does our palm feel cold when we put some acetone or petrol or perfume on it?
Sol.     When acetone or petrol or perfume is poured over palm, it evaporates quickly as these are volatile liquids. The evaporation lowers the temperature of palm and our palm feels cold.


Q.4     Why are we able to sip hot tea or milk faster from a saucer rather than a cup?
Sol.     When hot tea or milk is kept in a saucer, the liquid is exposed over a larger surface area as compared to in case of the liquid being kept in a cup. The larger surface area enables the faster cooling. That’s why we are able to sip hot tea or milk faster from a saucer rather than from a cup.



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