Management of Natural Resources : Complete Set of Questions

This set of questions contains all the possible concepts
which could be asked in the examination


Our Natural Resources

Q.1  Define the term natural resources.

Natural resources are the stock of nature such as air, water, soil, coal, minerals, animals and plants that are useful to mankind in many ways.

Q.2  Name the project launched to clean Ganga. When was it started?

The project launched to clean Ganga is known as “Ganga Action Plan”. It was started in 1985

Q.3  What is Coliform? What does the presence of coliform in water indicate?

Coliform is a group of bacteria, found in human intestines, whose presence in water indicates contamination by disease-causing microorganisms.

Q.4  Which is the easiest method to detect water pollution? What is the pH of potable water?

PH detection by using the universal indicator. pH of potable water is 7 -7.2

Q.5  Explain the three R's in the conservation of environment?

The three R's refer to Reduce, Recycle and Reuse.

Reduce: Use less electricity by switching off unnecessary lights and fans, save water by repairing leaky taps, do not waste food.

Recycle: Materials made of plastic, paper, glass and metal should be recycled to make new items.

Reuse: To use the things again and again. This is even better than recycling as the process of recycling uses some energy.

Q.6  State three reasons for launching Ganga action plan?

The Ganga action plan, multi-crore project was launched to clean river Ganga for the following reasons-

(i) The quality of the water in the Ganga was very poor

(ii) Alarming increase of disease causing microbes in the river

(iii) Pollution due to dumping of untreated sewage or industrial waste.

Q.7  What is meant by sustainable development?

Sustainable development means development that meets current basic human needs, while preserving the resources for the needs of future generations.

Q.8  Why is reuse better than recycling?

Reuse better than recycling because the process of recycling uses some energy. In the reuse strategy, we simply use things again and again instead of throwing them away.

Q.9  What are the causes and effects of water pollution?

Causes of Water Pollution

The contaminants that lead to water pollution include a wide variety of substance like chemicals, pathogens, temperature changes and discoloration.

  • Industrial activity causes huge water pollution. Wastes from factories are let off into freshwater to carry waste from plants into rivers. This contaminates water with pollutants like lead, mercury, asbestos and petrochemicals.
  • Sewage let off from domestic households, factories, commercial buildings are untreated in water treatment plants yet are disposed into the sea. Sewage containing flush chemicals and pharmaceuticals causes greater problems.
  • Solid waste dumping and littering of cardboard, plastics, glass, styrofoam, aluminium tins, etc., in water bodies.
  • Use of pesticides and fertilisers causes water pollution.
  • Oil spills from tankers and ship travel causes oil pollution. Oil does not dissolve in water and forms a thick layer on the water surface. This causes suffocation for the aquatic beings and thereby leading to their death.
  • Burning of fossil fuels and emissions from industries and motor vehicles causes formation of acidic particles in the atmosphere. These particles fuse with water vapour resulting in acid rain. Acid rain harms aquatic life.
  • Increase in water temperature is a result of global warming. Increased temperature of water kills the aquatic life.

Effects of Water Pollution

Water pollution extensively affects health in humans and aquatic ecosystems.

  • Groundwater contamination causes reproductive and fertility disorders in wildlife ecosystems.
  • Sewage, fertilizer and agricultural run-off has nutrients, organic substances which lead to increase of algal bloom causing oxygen depletion. The lower oxygen levels affect the natural ecological balance of rivers and Lake Ecosystem.
  • Consumption and swimming in contaminated water causes skin diseases, cancer, reproductive problems, and stomach ailments in humans.
  • Industrial effluents and agricultural pesticides accumulate in aquatic environments causing harm to aquatic animals and lead to biomagnifications. Heavy metals like mercury, lead are poisonous to small children and women. These chemicals interfere in the development of nervous system in fetuses and young children.
  • Rising water temperatures destroy aquatic ecosystem. Coral reefs are bleached due to warmer temperatures. Warmer waters forces indigenous water species to seek cooler water causing ecological shift of the affected area.
  • Littering by humans like plastic bags, clog and suffocate aquatic animals. 

Q.10  Why do we need to use our resources carefully?

With the enormous increase in human population and advancement in technology, the natural resources are being over exploited, without caring for the resultant consequences. If the natural resources are not managed then the future generation will have to suffer with its consequences of not having them at all.


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