Management of Natural Resources : Complete Set of Questions

This set of questions contains all the possible concepts
which could be asked in the examination


Our Natural Resources

Q.1  Define the term natural resources.

Natural resources are the stock of nature such as air, water, soil, coal, minerals, animals and plants that are useful to mankind in many ways.

Q.2  Name the project launched to clean Ganga. When was it started?

The project launched to clean Ganga is known as “Ganga Action Plan”. It was started in 1985

Q.3  What is Coliform? What does the presence of coliform in water indicate?

Coliform is a group of bacteria, found in human intestines, whose presence in water indicates contamination by disease-causing microorganisms.

Q.4  Which is the easiest method to detect water pollution? What is the pH of potable water?

PH detection by using the universal indicator. pH of potable water is 7 -7.2

Q.5  Explain the three R's in the conservation of environment?

The three R's refer to Reduce, Recycle and Reuse.

Reduce: Use less electricity by switching off unnecessary lights and fans, save water by repairing leaky taps, do not waste food.

Recycle: Materials made of plastic, paper, glass and metal should be recycled to make new items.

Reuse: To use the things again and again. This is even better than recycling as the process of recycling uses some energy.

Q.6  State three reasons for launching Ganga action plan?

The Ganga action plan, multi-crore project was launched to clean river Ganga for the following reasons-

(i) The quality of the water in the Ganga was very poor

(ii) Alarming increase of disease causing microbes in the river

(iii) Pollution due to dumping of untreated sewage or industrial waste.

Q.7  What is meant by sustainable development?

Sustainable development means development that meets current basic human needs, while preserving the resources for the needs of future generations.

Q.8  Why is reuse better than recycling?

Reuse better than recycling because the process of recycling uses some energy. In the reuse strategy, we simply use things again and again instead of throwing them away.

Q.9  What are the causes and effects of water pollution?

Causes of Water Pollution

The contaminants that lead to water pollution include a wide variety of substance like chemicals, pathogens, temperature changes and discoloration.

  • Industrial activity causes huge water pollution. Wastes from factories are let off into freshwater to carry waste from plants into rivers. This contaminates water with pollutants like lead, mercury, asbestos and petrochemicals.
  • Sewage let off from domestic households, factories, commercial buildings are untreated in water treatment plants yet are disposed into the sea. Sewage containing flush chemicals and pharmaceuticals causes greater problems.
  • Solid waste dumping and littering of cardboard, plastics, glass, styrofoam, aluminium tins, etc., in water bodies.
  • Use of pesticides and fertilisers causes water pollution.
  • Oil spills from tankers and ship travel causes oil pollution. Oil does not dissolve in water and forms a thick layer on the water surface. This causes suffocation for the aquatic beings and thereby leading to their death.
  • Burning of fossil fuels and emissions from industries and motor vehicles causes formation of acidic particles in the atmosphere. These particles fuse with water vapour resulting in acid rain. Acid rain harms aquatic life.
  • Increase in water temperature is a result of global warming. Increased temperature of water kills the aquatic life.

Effects of Water Pollution

Water pollution extensively affects health in humans and aquatic ecosystems.

  • Groundwater contamination causes reproductive and fertility disorders in wildlife ecosystems.
  • Sewage, fertilizer and agricultural run-off has nutrients, organic substances which lead to increase of algal bloom causing oxygen depletion. The lower oxygen levels affect the natural ecological balance of rivers and Lake Ecosystem.
  • Consumption and swimming in contaminated water causes skin diseases, cancer, reproductive problems, and stomach ailments in humans.
  • Industrial effluents and agricultural pesticides accumulate in aquatic environments causing harm to aquatic animals and lead to biomagnifications. Heavy metals like mercury, lead are poisonous to small children and women. These chemicals interfere in the development of nervous system in fetuses and young children.
  • Rising water temperatures destroy aquatic ecosystem. Coral reefs are bleached due to warmer temperatures. Warmer waters forces indigenous water species to seek cooler water causing ecological shift of the affected area.
  • Littering by humans like plastic bags, clog and suffocate aquatic animals. 

Q.10  Why do we need to use our resources carefully?

With the enormous increase in human population and advancement in technology, the natural resources are being over exploited, without caring for the resultant consequences. If the natural resources are not managed then the future generation will have to suffer with its consequences of not having them at all.


Forests and Wild Life 


Q.11  Some forests known as biodiversity hot spots. Why? What is the measure of biodiversity?

Forests where a large number of flora and fauna species are found are termed as 'biodiversity hot spots'. The range of different life forms like bacteria, fungi, ferns, flowering plants, nematodes, insects, birds, reptiles and so on are present in forests. Certain areas in the Western Ghats of Maharashtra and Kerala are examples of biodiversity hot spots.

Measure of biodiversity are-

(i) The number of species found in an area.

(ii) The range of different life forms( Presence of taxonomically unrelated organisms like bacteria, algae, fungi, mosses, ferns, flowering plants, nematodes, insects, birds, reptiles etc)

Q.12  What is the main aim of conservation?

The main aim of conservation is to preserve the biodiversity we have inherited and thereby maintain ecological stability.

Q.13  Which programme was started to replenish forests?


Q.14  What direct value does a forest have for man?

Forests contribute to the economic development of our country by providing goods and services to people and industry. They are intimately linked with our culture and civilization. Forests are useful to humans for the following reasons:

i) Forests provide timber for the building and furniture

ii) Forests provide raw materials for the paper industry, board industry, plywood industry etc

iii) Forests yield bamboos, which is called poor man's timber. Industrially bamboos are used as a raw material in paper and rayon industry

iv) Forests provide fuel energy needs to villagers staying in their vicinity. They also provide fodder and grazing grounds for their animals

v) Forests provide various minor forest products such as fruits, nuts, gums, resins, tannins, rubber, lac, dyes, fibres, medicines, katha, insecticides, camphor, essential oils, soap substances, cooking oils and spices

vi) Forests also provide various animal products such as musk, honey, wax, tusser or mooga silk etc.

Q.15  What is the cause of over exploitation of natural resources?

To meet the demands of increasing population, the land is continuously be cleared and converted to grow more food up and to make dwelling places. The industrial and technological revolution and consequent new demands for materials and lifestyle needs is another cause. Both these reasons are causing a large pressure for tapping the natural resources quickly and extensively.

Q.16  How does short term aims in managing our resources differ from long term aims?

Short term aims in managing our resources differs from long term aims in the following manner

Q.17  What is a stakeholder? Name the stakeholders who have their dependence on forests?

A person who has interests or concerns for something is called as stakeholders.

Stakeholders of forests are-

(i) Local people who live in and around the forests: They are dependent on forests produce for various aspects of their life.

(ii) Forest department, a government body which owns, manages and controls the forest resources.

(iii) Industrialists who consider the forests as merely a source of raw material for its factories and are not interested in the sustainability of the forests.

(iv) Wild life conversationalists and enthusiasts who are in no way dependent on forests but want to conserve nature in its pristine form.

Q.18  Why does forest department plant only pine, teak or eucalyptus trees?

Teak, pine and eucalyptus trees are useful for industries to access specific products. Moreover, they are an important source of revenue for forest department.

Q.19  Give an instance of local people working traditionally for conservation of forests:-

For the Bishnoi community in Rajasthan, conservation of forest and wildlife has been a religious tenet.

Q.20  What is Chipko Andolan?

In the 1970’s, an organised resistance to the destruction of forests spread throughout India ans was known as Chipko Andolan(Hug the Trees Movement). It was the result of a grassroot level effort to end the alienation of people from their forests. The name of the movement comes from the word ‘embrace’, as the villagers hugged the trees and prevented the contractors from felling them.The movement originated from an incident in a remote village called Reni in Garhwal, high-up in the Himalayas during the early 1970s

Q.21  How did the Chipko Andolan ultimately benefit the local population? Give any four benefits?

(i) The locals benefitted from forest produces

(ii)The wild life and nature were conserved

(iii)The quality of air and soil was preserved.

(iv)Forests conserve soil and water and prevent floods.

Q.22  Quote three instances where human intervention saved the forests from destruction:

(i) Contribution of Bishnoi movement

(ii) Building national parks

(iii) Encouraging wildlife sanctuaries.

Q.23  Give an example to show the prejudice against the traditional use of forest areas in fact has no basis:

The great Himalayan National Park contains, within its reserved area, alpine meadows which were grazed by sheep in summer. Nomadic shepherds drove their flock up from the valleys every summer. When this national park was formed, this practice was put to an end.   Now, it is seen that without the regular grazing by sheep the grass first grows very tall, and then falls over preventing fresh growth. Therefore, we can say that the prejudice against the traditional use of forest areas in fact has no basis.

Q.24  Who was Amrita Devi Bishnoi?

Amrita Devi Bishnoi was a social worker who in 1731 sacrificed her life along with 363 others for the protection of Khejri trees in Khejrali village near Jodhpur in Rajasthan.

The ‘Amrita Devi Bishnoi National Award for Wildlife Conservation’ has been named in her honour.

Q.25  What is Narmada Bachao Andolan?

Narmada Bachao Andolan (save the Narmada movement) was the protest against the proposed increase in the height of the Sardar Sarovar Dam on the river Narmada which involved in the construction of large reservoirs. Constructing a reservoir may result in the flooding of nearby towns and villages. This would lead to displacement of large number of people.

Q.26  Why are environmentalists insisting upon ‘sustainable natural resource management’? Give any four reasons:

(i) The non- renewable resources are limited, so we must use them judiciously

(ii)We should encourage the use of renewable resources

(iii)The benefits of the controlled exploitation should go to the local people.

(iv)Preserve the environment for future generations.

Q.27  Mention the steps taken by the West Bengal government to protect the badly degraded Sal forests:

The West Bengal forest department with the help of a forest officer named A.K Banerjee was able to recover a remarkable value of Rs 12.5 crores from a previously worthless Sal forest in 1970. The local people were engaged in this activity to protect the forest and in return for their help in protection, villagers were given employment in both silviculture and harvesting operations, 25 per cent of the final harvest, and allowed fuel wood and fodder collection on payment of a nominal fee. Active and willing participation of the local community led to the recovery of the Sal forests of Arabari.

Q.28  Can we say that Coal and petroleum are converted forms of solar energy”. Justify your answer

This is statement is correct because millions of years ago the raw material from which coal and petroleum are derived were dead and decayed plants, which  while living prepared food by the process of photosynthesis by using solar energy.

Q.29  Suggest any two measures for controlling CO2 levels in the atmosphere.

(a)Increased vegetation cover.

(b) Using alternate sources of energy.

Q.30  What is meant by deforestation? What are its causes and what are the effects of deforestation:- 

Removal, decrease or deterioration of the forest cover of an area is called deforestation.

It is caused by excessive felling of trees, overgrazing, monoculture, fragmentation and clearing of forests.

Effects of deforestation                              

1. Soil Erosion- Removal of plant cover exposes the fertile soil to wind and water. The latter remove the top soil and make the area infertile.

2. Desertification- Removal of forest cover in the plains makes the area dry. In hot season, the soil becomes loose. Air currents take away the fine soil particles leaving behind sand.

3. Floods- In rainy season, many temporary rivulets are formed due to loss of absorption capacity by unprotected soil. The rivulets produce floods in low land causing loss to agriculture, property and life.

4. Destruction of wildlife- Deforestation leads to destruction of natural habitats of wild animals and plants. Wildlife is, therefore, destroyed. 

5. Climatic changes- In the absence of forest cover, the summer becomes hotter while the winters become extra cool. The frequency of rainfall decreases.

Q.31  Write two advantages of classifying energy sources as renewable and non renewable.

(a) A judicious use of non renewable energy source so as to prevent its depletion.

(b) Increasing use of renewable energy source but not beyond its renewability.

Q.32  How had people been living in forests before the British came?

People living in forests before the British came developed practices to ensure that the resources were used in a sustainable manner

Q.33  Write the names of anyy 2 forest produce that form a basis for an industry

Gum and wood

Q.34  What happened to our forests after the British took control of them?

After the British took control of the forests, they exploited the forests ruthlessly for their own benefits. The people living in these forests were forced to depend on much smaller areas. As a result, forest resources started becoming over exploited.


Water for All


Q.35  Why scarcity of water is there in our country in spite of nature’s monsoon bounty?

Scarcity of water has taken place due to the following reasons-

1. Failure to sustain water availability underground which has resulted largely from the loss of vegetation cover

2. Diversion for high water demanding crops

3. Pollution from industrial effluents and urban wastes.

Q.36  What is the effect of continuous depletion of ground water along coastal regions?

The effect of continuous depletion of ground water along coastal regions will lead to the movement of saline sea water into fresh water wells and thereby spoiling their quality.

Q.37  What are the problems caused due to the construction of large dams?

Construction of large dams causes-

1. Social problem of displacement of large number of peasants and tribal’s, without proper rehabilitation and adequate compensation.

2. Economic problems of expenditure of huge amounts of public money without the generation of proportionate benefits.

3. Environmental problems of deforestation and the loss of biological diversity.

Q.38  Why do we seek to build large dams?

We seek to build large dams in order to-

a) Store large quantity of water for irrigation and electricity generation.

b) Transfer water to distant locations in adequate quantities.

c) Allow equitable distribution of water because people near the source grow water intensive crops like sugarcane and rice while people farther downstream do not get any water.

Q.39  Write any two alternatives to dams:

i) Adopting water harvesting techniques

ii) Reducing the scale of floods through better catchment management.

Q.40  What were the two main problems as a result of Tawa Irrigation Project?

The two main problems as a result of Tawa Irrigation Project are-

i) Waterlogging

ii) Increasing salinity

Q.41  State the benefits of water harvesting:

The benefits of water harvesting are-

i) Provides self- sufficiency to water supply

ii) Conserves valuable ground water

iii) Reduces cost for pumping ground water

iv) Reduces local flooding and drainage problems.

Q.42  Name some of the water harvesting techniques structures still in use today:

Khadins, tanks and nadis in Rajasthan, bandharas and tals in Maharashtra, bundhis in Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh, ahars and pynes in Bihar, kulhs in Himachal Pradesh, ponds in the Kandi belt of Jammu region, and eris (tanks) in Tamil Nadu, surangams in Kerala, and kattas in Karnataka are some of the ancient water harvesting techniques.

Q.43  What are the advantages of water stored in the ground?

The advantages of water stored in the ground are many. Some of them are-

i) It does not evaporate

ii) The water stored underground percolates, which enriches the water table and recharges ground water sources.

iii) It provides moisture for vegetation over a wide area.

iv) It does not provide breeding grounds for mosquitoes like stagnant water collected in ponds or artificial lakes.

v) The ground-water is also relatively protected from contamination by human and animal waste

Q.44  Why are fossil fuels considered to be non-renewable resources? Why are they unsustainable? 

Fossil fuels are essentially a non-renewable energy source because they will run out one day as the geological processes which create them take millions of years, so they cannot be replaced within human timescales once they have gone. Burning fossil fuels generates greenhouse gases and relying on them for energy generation is unsustainable.

Q.45  What are renewable and non- renewable resources?

Renewable resources are resources that are replenished by the environment over relatively short periods of time and can be used again and again. E.g., Solar energy, wind energy, geothermal energy

Non-renewable resources are resources that are not easily replenished by the environment. It usually takes thousands or millions of years in its formation. E.g., Fossil fuels like coal, petroleum

Q.46  What is meant by water harvesting?

Water harvesting is a conservation technique that refers to capturing rain water from where it falls and capture the run-off  from, catchment and streams etc to meet requirements of water. Generally, water harvesting is direct rainwater collection. This collected water could be stored for later use and recharged into the ground water again. It reduces dependency on rainfall for irrigation and helps meet drinking water requirements for the population.

The techniques of water harvesting include-

(i) Capturing runoff from rooftops
(ii) Capturing runoff from local catchments
(iii) Capturing seasonal floodwaters from local streams
(iv) Conserving water through watershed management

Q.47  Why is it necessary to ensure complete combustion of fossil fuels in internal combustion engines?

It is necessary to ensure complete combustion of fossil fuels in internal combustion engines to-

(i) Increase energy efficiency

(ii) Reduce air pollution.

Q.48  What are fossil fuels? What are its advantages, disadvantages and uses?

Fossil fuels are energy yielding combustible substances that have been formed millions of years ago by compression and anaerobic heating of organic matter. Ex coal and petroleum and natural gas.

Advantages and uses of fossil fuels:

a) Industrial revolution: The availability and use of fossil fuels made the industrial revolution possible. Increasing industrialisation has led to a better quality of life all over the world.

b) Direct Combustion: Fossil fuels are primarily burned to produce energy. This energy is used to power automobiles, trucks, airplanes, trains and ships around the world. This energy is also used to provide heat, light and energy for homes and business complexes

c) Electricity Generation: Fossil fuels are burned to generate most of the world’s electric power. Fossil fuels generate about 60% of the world’s electrical power

Disadvantages of fossil fuels:

a) Non-renewable: The fossil fuels are non-renewable sources of energy, so we need to conserve them.

b) Acid rain: The oxides of carbon, nitrogen and sulphur that are released on burning fossil fuels are acidic oxides. These lead to acid rains which affect our water and soil resources.

c) Global warming: Carbon dioxide is a major by-product of fossil fuel combustion and is called a green house gas. Excess presence of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere causes more trapping of the solar energy leading to global warming.

Q.49  What is watershed management? What is its aim and what are the benefits?

Watershed management is a scientific way of developing primary and secondary sources of water.

Its main aim is to develop primary sources of land and water and use scientific methods to increase the biomass production as secondary sources so that no ecological imbalance occurs. They work on rejuvenating ancient and traditional way of water storage along with mega- projects like dams and reservoir

Q.50  Suggest any two ways of utilizing waste water.

(a) Treated municipal water can be poured in irrigation channels for supply to crop fields.

(b) Sewage sludge separated from waste water is a source of manure compost and bio gas

Q.51  Write the advantages of giving the control of water management to the residents of the area:

Water harvesting techniques are highly locality specific and the benefits are localised.  Thus, by giving people the control over their local water resources ensures that mismanagement and over exploitation is reduced.

Q.52  Why is mining a big source of pollution?

Mining causes pollution because large amount of slag is discarded for every tonne of metal extracted.

Q.53  Burning fossil fuels is a cause of (i) Acid rain  (ii) Global warming. Justify

Combustion of fossil fuels results in the emission of harmful and poisonous gases into the atmosphere such as carbon monoxide, oxides of sulphur, oxides of nitrogen and particulate matter. The oxides of sulphur and nitrogen combine with water vapour present in the air to form droplets of sulphuric acid and nitric acid respectively. These droplets remain suspended in air. These dissolve in rainwater thereby making it acidic and hence cause acid rain.

Fossil fuels contain carbon as the principal element. Therefore, combustion of fossil fuels release carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.  This gas traps the heat from the atmosphere from reaching into space and hence the temperature of the atmosphere increases causing global warming. In this way, we can say that these two gases are contributing gases which causes global warming.

Q.54  What are the causes and effects of air pollution?

Causes of Air pollution

1. Burning of Fossil Fuels: Sulphur dioxide emitted from the combustion of fossil fuels like coal, petroleum and other factory combustibles is one the major cause of air pollution. Pollution emitting from vehicles including trucks, jeeps, cars, trains, airplanes cause immense amount of pollution. 

2. Agricultural activities: Ammonia is a very common by product from agriculture related activities and is one of the most hazardous gases in the atmosphere. Use of insecticides, pesticides and fertilizers in agricultural activities has grown quite a lot. They emit harmful chemicals into the air and can also cause water pollution.

3. Exhaust from factories and industries: Manufacturing industries release large amount of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, organic compounds, and chemicals into the air thereby depleting the quality of air. Petroleum refineries also release hydrocarbons and various other chemicals that pollute the air and also cause land pollution.

4. Mining operations: Mining is a process wherein minerals below the earth are extracted using large equipments. During the process dust and chemicals are released in the air causing massive air pollution. This is one of the reasons which is responsible for the deteriorating health conditions of workers and nearby residents.

5. Indoor air pollution: Household cleaning products, painting supplies emit toxic chemicals in the air and cause air pollution.

Effects of Air pollution

1. Respiratory and heart problems: The effects of Air pollution are alarming. They are known to create several respiratory and heart conditions along with Cancer, among other threats to the body. Children in areas exposed to air pollutants are said to commonly suffer from pneumonia and asthma.

2. Global warming: Another direct effect is the immediate alterations that the world is witnessing due to Global warming.

3. Acid Rain: Harmful gases like nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides are released into the atmosphere during the burning of fossil fuels. When it rains, the water droplets combines with these air pollutants, becomes acidic and then falls on the ground in the form of acid rain. Acid rain can cause great damage to human, animals and crops.

4. Eutrophication: Eutrophication is a condition where high amount of nitrogen present in some pollutants gets developed on sea’s surface and turns itself into algae and adversely affect fish, plants and animal species. The green coloured alga that is present on lakes and ponds is due to presence of this chemical only.

5. Effect on Wildlife: Just like humans, animals also face some devastating effects of air pollution. Toxic chemicals present in the air can force wildlife species to move to new place and change their habitat. The toxic pollutants deposit over the surface of the water and can also affect sea animals.

6. Depletion of Ozone layer: Ozone exists in earth’s stratosphere and is responsible for protecting humans from harmful ultraviolet (UV) rays. Earth’s ozone layer is depleting due to the presence of chlorofluorocarbons, in the atmosphere. As ozone layer will go thin, it will emit harmful rays back on earth and can cause skin and eye related problems. UV rays also have the capability to affect crops.

Q.55  Suggest some of the methods that can be adopted to reduce air pollution

Air pollution can be reduced by-

1. Use public mode of transportation: Encourage people to use more and more public modes of transportation to reduce pollution. Also, try to make use of car pooling.

2. Conserve energy: Switch off fans and lights when you are going out. Large amount of fossil fuels are burnt to produce electricity. You can save the environment from degradation by reducing the amount of fossil fuels to be burned.

3. Understand the concept of Reduce, Reuse and Recycle: Do not throw away items that are of no use to you. In-fact reuse them for some other purpose. For e.g. you can use old jars to store cereals or pulses.

4. Emphasis on clean energy resources: Clean energy technologies like solar, wind and geothermal are on high these days.

5. Use energy efficient devices: CFL lights consume less electricity as against their counterparts. They live longer, consume less electricity, lower electricity bills and also help you to reduce pollution by consuming less energy.


Value- Based question


Q.1  In a recent visit to Ranikhet in Uttaranchal, a student stayed at Chilianaula. He enjoyed the beauty of the vast tracts of chir pines(Pinus roxburghii) which was the only species being grown in the area. What is such practice of management of forests called? What are the advantages and disadvantages of this practice?

The practice of clearing vast tracts of forests and growing large numbers of trees of one kind is called Monoculture.


Such plantations are used for large scale industrial production of wood, resins and raw materials for paper.

It is important source of revenue for the Forest Department.

It is an important source of revenue for the Tourism Department as such places attracts tourist.


(i) It destroys a large amount of biodiversity in the area.

(ii) Local people are deprived of the minor forest resources of leaves, fodder, medicines, fruits and nuts.

(iii) Such forests are more prone to diseases and forest fires.

(iv) Ecological balance of the area gets disturbed.

Q.2  Govt. of India has recently instituted an Amrita Devi Bishnoi National Award for wildlife conservation in the memory of Amrita Devi Bishnoi, who sacrificed her life along with 363 others for the protection of khejri trees near Jodhpur in Rajasthan. Based on the above statements answer the following question.

(a)How trees are important to us?

(b) How can you protect trees?

(c) What is the significance of Van Mahotsava?

(a)Trees are the basis of human and animal life;no life can exist without them. We are directly or indirectly dependent on the trees for all our requirements.

(b) We can protect trees by taking careof these. By reducing our needs and by not wasting paper.

(c) Vanmahotsava is the festival celebrated to enhance the plantation of trees

Q.3 Human actions are leading to environmental problems. But we need not feel powerful or helpless as there are many things we can do to make a difference.

Keeping in view the above statement answer the following questions:-

(a) What are the three R‟s which can make a difference in our environment.

(b) How can you contribute at your own level to save the environment

(a) Reduce reuse and recycle

(b) By becoming Eco-friendly

By planting trees, by not throwing garbage etc


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