Improvement in Food Resources :NCERT Intext Questions

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Page 204

Q.1     What do we get from cereals, pulses, fruits and vegetables?
Sol.      (i) Cereals provide us with carbohydrates. Also, they are a rich source of energy.
            (ii) Pulses give us proteins.
            (iii) Fruits and vegetables are a rich source of vitamins and minerals. A small amount of proteins,
carbohydrates, and fats are also present in them.

Page 205

Q.1     How do biotic and abiotic factors affect crop production?
Sol.      A variety of biotic factors such as pests, nematodes, diseases, etc. can reduce the net crop production. A pest causes damage to agriculture by feeding on crops. For example, boll weevil is a pest on cotton. It attacks the cotton crop, thereby reducing its yield. Weeds also reduce crop productivity by competing with the main crop for nutrients, light, and space. Similarly, abiotic factors such as salinity, temperature, etc. affect the net crop production. Some natural calamities such as droughts and floods are
unpredictable. Their occurrence has a great impact on crops sometimes, destroying the entire crop.

Q.2     What are the desirable agronomic characteristics for crop improvements?
Sol.      The desirable agronomic characteristics for crop improvements are:
            (i) Tallness and profuse branching in any fodder crop.
            (ii) Dwarfness in cereals.
            These desirable agronomic characteristic shelp in increasing crop productivity.

Page 206

Q.1     What are macro-nutrients and why are they called macro-nutrients?
Sol.      Macro-nutrientsare nutrients required in relatively large quantities for growth and development of
plants. They are six in number. Since they are required in large quantities, they are known as macro-nutrient. The six macro-nutrients required by plants are nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium,
magnesium, and sulphur.

Q.2    How do plants get nutrients?
Sol.     Plants require sixteen essential nutrients from nature for their growth and development. All these
nutrients are obtained from air, water, and soil. Soil is the major source of nutrients. Thirteen of these
nutrients are available from soil. The remaining three nutrients (carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen) are
obtained from air and water.

Page 207

Q.1     Compare the use of manure and fertilizers in maintaining soil fertility.
Sol.      Manures increase soil fertility by enriching the soil with organic matter and nutrients as it is prepared by  the decomposition of animal excreta and plant wastes. On the other hand, fertilizers are mostly inorganic compounds whose excessive use is harmful to the symbiotic micro-organisms living in soil. Their excessive use also reduces soil fertility. Hence, fertilizers are considered good for only short term use.

Page 208

Q.1     Which of the following conditions will give the most benefits? Why?
           (a) Farmers use high-quality seeds, do not adopt irrigation or use fertilizers.
           (b) Farmers use ordinary seeds, adopt irrigation and use fertilizer.
           (c) Farmers use quality seeds, adopt irrigation, use fertilizer and use crop protection measures.
Sol.     (c) Farmers using good quality seeds, adopting irrigation, using fertilizers, and using crop protection measures will derive most benefits.
           (i) The use of good quality seeds increases the total crop production. If a farmer is using good quality seeds, then a majority of the seeds will germinate properly, and will grow into a healthy plant.
           (ii) Proper irrigation methods improve the water availability to crops.
           (iii) Fertilizers ensure healthy growth and development in plants by providing the essential nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, etc.
           (iv) Crop protection measures include various methods to control weeds, pests, and infectious agents. If all these necessary measures are taken by a farmer, then the overall production of crops will increase.

Page 209

Q.1     Why should preventive measures and biological control methods be preferred for protecting crops?
Sol.     Preventive measures and biological control methods should be preferred for protecting crops because excessive use of chemicals leads to environmental problems. These chemicals are also poisonous for plants and animals. Preventive measures include proper soil and seed preparation, timely sowing of seeds, inter cropping and mixed cropping, usage of resistant varieties of crops, etc. On the other hand, biological control methods include the usage of bio-pesticides that are less toxic for the environment. An example of bio-pesticides is Bacillus thuringenes is,which is an insect pathogen that kills a wide range of insect larvae. Therefore, both preventive measures and biological control methods are considered eco-friendly methods of crop protection.

Q.2     What factors may be responsible for losses of grains during storage?
Sol.      During the storage of grains, various biotic factors such as insects, rodents, mites,fungi, bacteria, etc. and  various abiotic factors such as inappropriate moisture, temperature, lack of sunlight, blood, etc. are responsible for losses of grains. These factors act on stored grains and result in degradation, poor
germinability, discolouration, etc.

Page 210

Q.1    Which method is commonly used for improving cattle breeds and why?
Sol.     Cattle farming is commonly used for improving cattle breeds. The purpose of cattle farming is to increase the production of milk and draught labour for agricultural work. Dairy animals (females) are used for obtaining milk and draught animals (males) are engaged in agricultural fields for labour work such as carting, irrigation, tilling, etc. Cross breeding between two good varieties of cattle will produce a
new improved variety. For example, the cross between foreign breeds such as Jersey Brown, Swiss
(having long lactation periods) and Indian breeds such as Red Sindhi, Sahiwal (having excellent
resistance power against diseases) produces a new variety having qualities of both breeds.

Page 211

Q.1     Discuss the implications of the following statement: “It is interesting to note that poultry is India’s most  efficient converter of low fibre food stuff (which is unfit for human consumption) into highly nutritious animal protein food.”
Sol.      Poultry in India is the most efficient converter of low fibre food stuff into highly nutritious animal protein food. In poultry farming, domestic fowls are raised to produce eggs and chicken. For this, the fowls are given animal feeds in the form of roughage, which mainly consists of fibres. Thus, by feeding animals a fibre rich diet, the poultry gives highly nutritious food in the form of eggs and chicken

Q.1     What management practices are common in dairy and poultry farming?
Sol.     Common management practices in dairy and poultry farming are:
           (i) Proper shelter facilities and their regular cleaning.
           (ii) Some basic hygienic conditions such as clean water, nutritious food, etc.
           (iii) Animals are kept in spacious, airy, and ventilated place.
           (iv) Prevention and cure of diseases at the right time is ensured.

Q.2     What are the differences between broilers and layers and in their management?
Sol.     Layersare meant for egg production, whereas broilers are meant for poultry meat. Nutritional,
environmental, and housing conditions required by broilers are different from those required by egg
layers. A broiler chicken, for their proper growth, requires vitamin rich supplementse specially vitamin A
and K. Also, their diet includes protein rich food and enough fat. They also require extra care
and maintenance to increase their survival rate in comparison to egg layers.

Page 213

Q.1     How are fish obtained?
Sol.      Fish can be obtained by two ways:
            (i) Capture fishing: It is the process of obtaining fish from natural resources.
            (ii) Culture fishery: It is the practice of farming fishes. Farming can be done in both freshwater               ecosystem
            (which includes river water, pond water) and marine ecosystem.

Q.2     What are the advantages of composite fish culture?
Sol.      An advantage of composite fish culture is that it increases the yield of fish. In a composite fish culture,five or six different species are grown together in a single fish pond. Fishes with different food habitats are chosen so that they do not compete for food among themselves. Also, this ensures a complete utilization of food resources in the pond. As a result, the survival rate of fish increases and their yield also increases.

Q.1     What are the desirable characters of bee varieties suitable for honey production?
Sol.      Bee varieties having the following desirable characters are suitable for honey production:
            (i) They should yield high quantity of honey.
            (ii) They should not sting much.
            (iii) They should stay in the beehive for long durations.
            (iv) They should breed very well.

Q.2     What is pasturage and how is it related to honey production?
Sol.      Pasturage is the availability of ϐlowers from which bees collect nectar and pollen. I t is related to the production of honey as it determines the taste and quantity of honey.




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