Diversity in Living Organisms : Previous Year Questions



1 Mark Questions

Q.1  Name the term which is used for the following : -
(i) The left and right halves of the body have the same design.
(ii) Animal tissue differentiated from the three embryonic germ layers.                      

[Board, 2012]

(i) Bilateral symmetry
(ii) Triploblastic


Q.2   Shyam knew the correct scientific name of Mango, but did not follow the conventions while writing it and wrote it as Mangifera Indica. Rewrite the scientific name as per the conventions.

[Board, 2012]

Mangifera indica.


Q.3   What is the lowermost category in the hierarchy of classification of groups of organisms?        

[Board, 2012]

Species.


Q.4   Name the phylum in which the animals have water vascular system.

[DAV 2006]

Echinodermata.

 

2 Marks Questions

Q.5   The body of an organism is streamlined and has feathers on its body. Identify the organism and write one specific feature of it.

[Board, 2014]

Aves.
Specific feature of Aves is that they are warm –blooded having a four chambered heart and modified forelimbs for flight
.


Q.6   An animal is dorsoventrally flattened. It has three embryonic germ layers and is acoelomate. Which phylum does it belong to? What are they commonly called? Give one example. 

[Board, 2012]

The animal belongs to phylum Platyhelminthes.
They are commonly known ‘flatworms’.

One example – Planaria or liver fluke or tape worm.


Q.7   What is a parasite? Give two examples.                                           

[Board, 2012]

A parasite lives in a close relationship with another organism, its host, and causes it harm. The parasite is dependent on its host for its life functions. E.g., Head lice, leech, bed bug.


Q.8    Kingdom Fungi have cell wall, but still it cannot be classified under kingdom Plantae? Give any two reasons.                     

[Board, 2012]

Fungi are not classified in plant kingdom because their cell wall is different from plant cell and is made up of chitin. They also lack chlorophyll and hence cannot do photosynthesis and are autotrophic.


Q.9    (a) Name and define the mode of nutrition in Mushroom.
(b) Name the symbiotic life form, which is seen as slow, growing large, coloured patches on the bark of trees.

[Board, 2012]

(a) Saprophytic nutrition -
Organisms feed on dead or decaying organic matter are called saprophytes and their mode of nutrition as saprophytic nutrition (In Greek- ‘Sapros’ means rotten and ‘trophos’ means feeder). 

(b) Lichen.


Q.10 The cat, platypus and man are all mammals, yet one of the most unique features of mammals helps to divide them into two groups. What is that feature? Mention two other characteristic features that are common to all the three animals.                     

[Board, 2012]

(a) Both cat, platypus are oviparous. Oviparous animals are animals that reproduce by laying eggs while man is viviparous. Viviparous animals bear live young that have developed inside the mother's body.

(b) Characteristics of mammalia-
i) They are warm blooded animals
ii) Mammary glands for the production of milk for their off springs

 

3 Marks Questions

Q.11 Associate the following features with groups in which they first appeared.
(a) Vascular tissues
(b) Notochord
(c) Seeds inside fruits

[Board, 2014]

(a) Vascular tissue- Gymnosperms
(b) Notochord- Cephalochordates

(c) Seeds inside fruits –Angiosperm


Q.12 State reasons for the following:
(a) Fungi are called saprophytes
(b) Platyhelminths are called so,
(c) Birds have hollow bones.

[Board, 2012]

(a) Fungi cause decay by releasing enzymes onto the dead animal or plant. These break down complex compounds into simple soluble ones that can be absorbed by decomposers. Organisms that feed on dead material in this way are called saprophytes.

(b) Platyhelminths or flatworms are called so because they are dorsoventrally flattened.

(c)
Birds have thin, hollow bones to lighten their weight and make it easier for them to fly. 


Q.13 State reasons for the following :
(a) Protists have appendages like cilia or flagella.
(b) Angiosperms are called so.
(c) Fish have scales on their body.

[Board, 2012]

(a) Protista has appendages like cilia and flagella for locomotion and gathering food.

(b)  ‘Angio’ means covered and ‘sperma’ means seed. This group is usually referred to as angiosperms because, as their name implies, their seeds are enclosed in a carpel (in a vessel). The carpel is the primary feature that distinguishes angiosperms from gymnosperms.

(c) Firstly, it acts as a protective layer so that harmful objects, fungus, bacteria and parasites cannot enter the fish body Secondly, they are present in overlapping pattern and only small part of scale is visible which makes the fish body smooth but itself the scales are hard. Scales allows the fish to move easily in vertical and horizontal direction in water

Thirdly, it protects their bodies from rotting in water.


Q.14 Give reasons for the following:
(a) Echidna and platypus lay eggs, but are considered as mammals.
(b) Crocodile has four, chambered heart, but still is a reptile.
(c) Birds have pneumatic bones.

[Board, 2012]

(a) Echidna and platypus lay eggs, but are considered as mammals because
(i) They are warm blooded animals

(ii) They  all have four chambered heart
(iii) Mammary glands for the production of  milk for their off springs
(iv) Their skin has hairs as well as sweat and oil glands.          

(b) Crocodile has four, chambered heart, but still is a reptile because they have dry, non- glandular skin, epidermal scales are also present. They are also cold blooded and oviparous.

(c) 
Birds have light weighted bones with internal spaces filled with air. These bones are called pneumatic bones. This feature reduces the corporal density of the animal facilitating the flight.

 

5 Marks Questions

Q.15 Propose three examples of characteristics used for hierarchical classification. Based on these, develop the definition of characteristics. Why the characteristics of body design used for classification of plants is different from those used for classifying animals?       

[Board, 2014]

(i) Characteristics used for hierarchical classification of living organism’s are-
(a) Their cellularity, whether unicellular or multicellular
(b) The mode of nutrition
(c) The mode of reproduction 

(ii) Characteristics mean features or qualities of any organism.

(iii) The characteristics of body design used for classification of plants is different from those used for classifying animals because the basic body designs are different based on the need to prepare food or obtain it by consuming other organisms.
Plants have structures like chloroplasts which contain chlorophyll necessary for the synthesis of food. Organisms that acquire food lack such structures.


Q.16 (i) State two basis of classifying plants and animals into different categories.
(ii) List three characteristics features of fungi.
(iii) Some fungal species live in permanent, mutually dependent relationships with cyanobacteria.
What is this relationship called? Where are they found?

[Board, 2013]

(i) Plants and animals are totally different from one another. They are classified on basis as follows:
Plants and animals are totally different from one another in the following ways-

(1) Food preparation
(2) Movement
(3) Body parts
(4) Respiration
(5) Reproduction

(ii) Three characteristic features of fungi are-
a) Cell wall is made of chitin
b) Mode of nutrition is heterotrophic
c) They are saprophytes.

(iii) Symbiotic relationship.
Symbiosis is a situation in which 2 different organisms live together in close association.
They occur as greyish-green growths on bare rock surfaces, mountain tops, rocky seashores, bark of trees, on the ground, stone walls etc.


Q.17 (a) List any two main feature of chordates.
(b) Name the classes of vertebrates which have the following characteristics
(i) Animals have streamlined body and gills for breathing.
(ii) Animals are found both on land and in water.
(iii) Animals have mammary glands for the production of milk to nourish their young ones.

[CBSE, 2013]

The two main features of chordates are-
(a)
(i) They have notochord

(ii) They are true coelomate animals and triploblastic.

(b)
(i)  Pisces have streamlined body and gills for breathing

(ii) Amphibians are found both on land and in water
(iii) Mammals have mammary glands for the production of milk to nourish their young ones.


Q.18 Write one point of difference each between the following
(a) Porifera and coelenterate
(b) Birds and reptiles

[CBSE, 2013]

(a) Porifera and coelenterate

(b) Birds and reptiles(consider any one difference)

Birds:
1. They have four-chambered hearts. 

Reptiles
1. They have three-chambered heart.


Q.19 Name the five classes of vertebrates and compare any two on the basis of their:
(i) Habitat
(ii) Covering of skin
(iii) Respiratory organs
(iv) Chambers of heart
(v) Reproduction.

[Board, 2012]



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