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Crop Production and Management - Class 8 : NCERT Exercise Questions

Q.1. Select the correct word from the following list and fill in the blanks.
        float, water, crop, nutrients, preparation
(a) The same kind of plants grown and cultivated on a large scale at a place is called _____________.
(b) The first step before growing crops is _____________ of the soil.
(c) Damaged seeds would _____________ on top of water.
(d) For growing a crop, sufficient sunlight and _____________ and _____________ from the soil are essential.
Sol. (a) The same kind of plants grown and cultivated on a large scale at a place is called crop.
(b) The first step before growing crops is preparation of the soil.
(c) Damaged seeds would float on top of water.
(d) For growing a crop, sufficient sunlight and water and nutrients from the soil are essential.

Q.2 Match items in column A with those in column B.
           A                                                         B
(i) Kharif crops                                   (a) Food for cattle
(ii) Rabi crops                                     (b) Urea and super phosphate
(iii) Chemical fertilisers                     (c) Animal excreta, cow dung urine and plant waste
(iv) Organic manure                           (d) Wheat, gram, pea

Sol. (i) Kharif crops                           (e) Paddy and maize
(ii) Rabi crops                                    (d) Wheat, gram, pea
(iii) Chemical fertilisers                     (b) Urea and super phosphate
(iv) Organic manure                           (c) Animal excreta, cow dung urine and plant waste

Q.3 Give two examples of each.
(a) Kharif crop  
(b) Rabi crop
Sol. (a) Kharif crop - Paddy, maize, soyabean, groundnut, cotton, etc.
(b) Rabi crop - Wheat, gram, pea, mustard, etc.

Q.4 Write a paragraph in your own words on each of the following.
(a) Preparation of soil                       (b) Sowing
(c) Weeding                                       (d) Threshing
Sol. (a) Preparation of soil:
The preparation of soil is the first basic step done before growing a crop. For preparing the soil, it is most essential to turn the soil and loosen it. The turning and loosening allows the roots to penetrate deep into the soil. This helps in the growth of earthworms and microbes which are considered to be friends of the farmer and they add humus to soil. Moreover, turning and loosening of soil brings the nutrient-rich soil to the top so that plants can use these nutrients.

(b) Sowing:
Sowing is the most significant part of crop production. But, it is necessary to select good quality seeds before sowing. Usually, the seeds which are clean, healthy and available in good variety are considered as of good quality. The seeds can then be sown manually using funnel or by a seed drill with the help of tractors.

(c) Weeding:
Weeds are unwanted plants that grow along with crops. And the removal of these weeds is known as weeding. Weeding is essential as they take up share of water, nutrients, space and light of the main crop. Thus, they affect the growth of the crop. Weeds can be removed either manually by using tools like khurpi or by using weedicides like 2, 4 – D. These are sprayed in the fields to kill the weeds.

(d) Threshing:
The process of separation of the grains from the chaff is called threshing. This is done with the help of a machine called ‘combine’ which is in fact a combined harvester and thresher.

Q.5 Explain how fertilisers are different from manure.
Sol. The differences between Fertiliser and Manure are as follows:



A fertiliser is an inorganic salt.

Manure is a natural thing derived out of decomposition of cattle dung, human waste and plant residues.

Fertilisers are prepared in factories.

Manures can be prepared in the fields.

Fertilisers do not provide humus to the soil.

Manures provide humus to the soil.

Fertilisers are usually rich in specific nutrients like nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, etc.

Manures are relatively not rich in specific nutrients.

Q.6 What is irrigation? Describe two methods of irrigation which conserve water.
Sol. Water is necessary for the germination of seeds as it does not take place under dry conditions. Hence, it is necessary to water the crops regularly for their healthy growth. The supply of water to crops at different intervals is called irrigation. The two methods of irrigation which conserve water are as follows:

(i) Sprinkler System: Under this method, the perpendicular pipes, having rotating nozzles on top, are joined to the main pipeline at regular intervals. When water is allowed to flow through the main pipe under pressure with the help of a pump, it escapes from the rotating nozzles. It gets sprinkled on the crop as if it is raining.

(ii) Drip system: In this system, the water falls drop by drop just at the position of the roots. It is the best technique for watering fruit plants, gardens and trees. Water is not wasted at all. It is a boon in regions where availability of water is poor.

Q.7 If wheat is sown in the kharif season, what would happen? Discuss.
Sol. Wheat is a rabi crop, hence it requires cold climatic conditions to be grown properly. If it is sown in the kharif season, it will not grow or may get destroyed due to excessive rains in the kharif season.

Q.8 Explain how soil gets affected by the continuous plantation of crops in a field.
Sol. Soil is enriched with the minerals required for the growth of crops. If continuously crops are grown in the same field it makes soil poorer in certain nutrients and makes it infertile. To replenish such soil with nutrients farmers need to add manures or fertilisers to the soil.

Q.9 What are weeds? How can we control them?
Sol. The unwanted plants that may grow naturally along with the crop are called weeds. There are many ways to remove weeds and control their growth. Weeds can be removed manually by uprooting or cutting them close to the ground, from time to time. This is done with the help of a khurpi. Weeds can also be controlled by using certain chemicals, called weedicides, like 2, 4–D. These are sprayed in the fields to kill the weeds.

Q.10 Arrange the following boxes in proper order to make a flow chart of sugarcane crop production.Sol.      The correct order is 5, 6, 4, 7, 2, 3, 1.

Q.11 Complete the following word puzzle with the help of clues given below.
1. Providing water to the crops.
2. Keeping crop grains for a long time under proper conditions.
5. Certain plants of the same kind grown on a large scale.
3. A machine used for cutting the matured crop.
4. A rabi crop that is also one of the pulses.
6. A process of separating the grain from chaff.Sol. Down:
1. Irrigation
2. Storage
5. Crop
3. Harvester
4. Gram
6. Winnowing


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