Control and Coordination : Complete Set of Question

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This set of questions contains all the possible concepts
which could be asked in the examination


Nervous system

Q.1 State functions of nervous system ?

The main function of a nervous system is to work as a maintaining, controlling, regulatory and communicating system of body.

• It Receives the information from internal as well as external environment by sense organs.

• Transmission of information to brain through spinal cord and network of nerves.

• After analyzing the information, it transmits information  accordingly through muscles and glands. 

Q.2 List  two body functions that will be affected if cerebellum gets damaged?

(i) Controlling posture and movement

(ii) Maintaining body balance

Q.3 Write small note about cranial nerves, spinal nerves and visceral nerves. 

Cranial Nerves : There are 12 pairs of cranial nerves found at the bottom surface of brain. It functions by receiving and sending messages from brain to the connected organs .

Spinal Nerves : There are 31 pairs of spinal nerves. It originates from spine present in backbone and forms a network of connection to all the body parts. It usually controls the functions of the body through conveying autonomic fibers and regulating motor responses. 

Visceral Nerves : These are responsible to conduct sensory impulses (pain / reflexes) from the internal organs (like heart, kidney etc.) to brain.

Q.4 Differentiate between Cerebral and Spinal Reflex ?

Q.5 Name various types of receptors in human body?

• Gustatory Receptors 

• Phono Receptors

• Olfactory Receptors

• Photo Receptors

• Thermo Receptors

Q.6 Which is the main thinking part of brain?


Q.7 Which part of the nervous system controls reflex arcs?

Reflex arcs are controlled by relay neurons in spinal chord and brain.

Q.8 While watering a rose plant, a thorn pricked Rita’s hand.How would she respond in this situation? Provide the term for such type of response?

She would suddenly move away her hand. Such a type of response is called reflex action.

Q.9 State the functions of :
• gustatory receptors, and
• olfactory receptors?

• Gustatory receptors are present in tongue and  are responsible for sensing taste.

• Olfactory receptors are present in nose and are responsible for detecting smell.

Q.10 Name the two main organs  of our central nervous system. Which one of them plays a major role in sending command to muscles to act without involving thinking process? Name the phenomenon involved?

The two major organs of central nervous system are brain and spinal chord. Spinal chord plays a major role in sending command to muscles to act without involving thinking process.

This phenomenon involved here is known as reflex action.

Q.11 State the role of the brain in reflex action? 

Brain controls cerebral transmission of impulses which takes place in the head region. When a message from an receptor is received by  brain, then the relay neuron present quickly sends appropriate response to the effector organs as a reflex action .

Q.12 Explain the function of neuron? 

Neurons are cells that can be electrically excitable in nervous system. The main function is to process and transmit information present in the form of an impulse through the intensive networking properties. It is found to be the core component of the brain, spinal cord and the peripheral nerves.

Q.13 Ram has met with an accident and after that he has lost the capacity to
(i) walk in straight line,
(ii) smell anything,
(iii) feel full after eating . Give suitable reasons?

Ram is showing such behavior due to several injuries he have attained in brain because of the accident.

1- Injured cerebellum caused such disturbances while walking in a straight line.

2- Accident have injured the olfactory receptors which is influencing the detection of smell.

3- The various nerve receptors attached with the stomach wall develops signals regarding the fullness of stomach to brain. Due to the damage caused by the accident, the brain must be failing to sense such responses.  

Q.14 Draw the labelled structure of neuron and explain the function of any two of its part?

Axon : The axon terminals transmits nerve impulses.

Dendrites : These small branch-like projections of the cell make connections to other neurons and begin a network of transmission of  nerve impulses.

Q.15 What happens at the synapse between two neurons?

Tiny amount of chemical is released at synapse by axon endings when electrical impulse reaches. This chemical crosses the synapse and reach to tip of dendrites where it again produces electrical impulse. And then this impulse travels along neuron.

Q.16 How is brain protected?

Brain is protected inside a bony structure called skull or cranium. Further, a cerebrospinal fluid is filled in between skull and brain which protects the brain from any jerk or shock.

Q.17 How do muscle cells move?

The control and coordination of nerves and muscular tissues are managed mainly by organised specialized tissues. Environment evokes the various sensory receptors and generates appropriate response through the active nervous system and brain. This incorporates the precision of involuntary as well as voluntary muscle tissues.

Q.18 Name the major parts of brain? 

Human brain has three major parts -

a. Forebrain (Cerebrum)

b. Mid brain

c. Hind brain

Q.19 Name the part of brain responsible for maintaining the posture and balance of the body ?


Q.20 Draw well labelled diagram of human brain?

Ques-20 Brain

Q.21 What do you understand by reflex actions? Draw the diagram of reflex arc. How are involuntary action and reflex actions different from each other? 

Reflex action is a quick, automatic response to the change in environment (stimulus) that involves only spinal cord.It is a mode of involuntary action in which thinking is not involved. Reflex actions occur within fractions of seconds. 

Ques 21 Reflex arc

Q.22 Name the components of central nervous system? 

Brain and spinal cord

Q.23 Give the functions of cerebellum? 

Cerebellum controls posture, controlled movement and balance of our body while doing various day to day activities like dancing, walking, picking an object, riding a bike etc.

Q.24 Define nervous system? 

Nervous system is the system comprising of dense network of nerves distributed throughout the body. It mainly comprises brain, spinal cord and nerves which controls and coordinates the functioning of different body parts in response to the stimulus.

Q.25 Write down the functions of the nervous system? 

Functions of nervous system are:

(1) Control voluntary actions

(2) Control involuntary actions

(3) Control reflexes

Q.26 Write down the unit of nervous system? 


Q.27 What is the function of receptors in our body? Think of situations and explain where receptors do not work properly. Describe what problems are likely to arise? 

Receptors works as active coordinators of brain which stimulates the change in external or internal environment and passes on the message to the brain for necessary action. They play a major role for our survival and characteristic functioning. An example of an individual with hearing impairment, demonstrates the difficulties faced by the person in different phono-receptor responses. Such a person feels insecure while crossing a road.

Q.28 Name the structure which encloses spinal cord in humans? 

Vertebral Column commonly known as backbone.

Q.29 What is the main function of fore-brain? 

The main function of fore-brain is to control thinking, memory, sensation and feelings.

Q.30 Name two tissues that provide control and co-ordination in multicellular animals? 

Muscular and Nervous tissue

 Q.31 What is spinal cord? How is it protected?

Spinal cord is the cylindrical bundle of nerve fibers and associated tissues  enclosed inside the spine or the vertebral column. It connects nearly all parts of the body to brain, due to which it performs the functions of central nervous system.

It is protected inside the vertebral column or the backbone of our skeletal. 

Q.32 Explain why brain and spinal cord are considered as central nervous system?

All the major functions of nervous system are performed and coordinated by brain and spinal cord. They are the ones who regulates and coordinates the sending, receiving and processing of messages in bidirectional mode of transmission through all body parts. Hence they are considered the central nervous system.

Q.33 Where are pons present in the brain? Which activity do they control? 

The pons are located in the hind brain region. It majorly relays signals from the fore-brain to that of the cerebellum. Such transmission is conducted by the various nuclei present inside the pons. This deal with the cerebellum function for sleep, respiration, swallowing, bladder control, hearing, taste, eye movement, facial sensation and expressions.

Q.34 Distinguish between voluntary and involuntary actions of our body? 

Voluntary actions are actions which we do in conscious control of brain. For example: Writing, speaking, walking, kicking a ball, lifting an object etc.

Involuntary actions are those which occur without the conscious control of organisms or we can say they are not under the control of will. For example: beating of heart, breathing, sweating, working of kidney, digestion of food.

Q.35  What is the difference between a reflex action and walking?

In walking, voluntary action is performed, while that in reflex action involuntary responses are generated.

Q.36 Suggest six reflex actions of the body . Explain how the reflex arc is the same in all of them?
Six reflex actions of the body are:

1. Change in pupil size with sudden change in intensity of light.

2. Sudden movement of hand on touching hot body

3. Salivation in mouth on seeing tasty food

4. Shivering of body in cold environment

5. Blushing

6. When the head is moved in right direction, the eyes moves in the left direction or vice versa.

Q.37 Why do impulses flow only in one direction in a reflex arc? 

In the reflex arc, the nerve cells present have neurotransmitter storage vesicles within them. Such vesicles are present in one way while the receptors are present in the opposite direction. Therefore, the flow of impulses are designed to flow in unidirectional mode.

Q.38 What are the three major components of the nervous system in animals? How are nerves classified? 

The there major components of nervous system in animals are:

(i) Brain

(ii) Spinal Chord

(iii) Nerves

Nerves of three types : 

Sensory Neurons : These neurons transmit message from body parts to central nervous system (which is composed of the brain and the spinal cord).

Motor Neurons : These neurons transmit message from central nervous system to body parts.

Relay Neurons : These neurons relay the signals within the central nervous system.

Q.39 Draw the structure of a neuron and explain its function? 

The function of neuron is to transmit messages in the form of electrical impulses from body parts to brain and spinal chord and vice-versa.

Ques-14 Nerve cell ques-39


Endocrine System

 Q.40 What are endocrine and exocrine glands. Give example ?

Glands that have ducts are called exocrine glands. The secretions of exocrine glands reach their target by traveling through a duct (tube). Some examples of exocrine glands are sweat glands and salivary glands.

Glands that do not have duct and secrete hormones directly in blood are called endocrine glands. Some examples are thyroid glands, adrenaline glands, pineal gland.

Q.41 Name the system that controls the activities of internal organs?

The activities of the internal organs are controlled by endocrine system and nervous system.

Q.42 Difference between dormancy and breaking of dormancy?

Dormancy is a period in an organism's life cycle when growth, development, and (in animals) physical activities are temporarily stopped. Breaking of dormancy means that such stage is stopped and growth and development restarts.

Q.43 At the time of puberty, both boys and girls show lots of changes in appearance. Name the hormones responsible for the changes? (2)

In boys: Testosterone

In girls: Estrogen & Progesterone

Q.44 Compare the nervous and hormonal systems for control and co-ordination in human beings?

Q.45 How does feedback mechanism regulate the hormone secretion?

Hormone is secreted by glands. In feedback mechanism, the information about the quantity of hormone in the body is brought to the gland generally by blood. The gland secretes proper amount of hormone based on this information. For example, lets talk about pancreas. The bile reaching to pancreases contains sugar. The cells in pancreas, detect the amount of sugar in blood. If sugar is less, less insulin is secreted and vice-versa. Insulin regulates the amount of sugar in body.

Q.46 State the sequence of changes that take place in a human body when it prepares to protect itself from a scary or dangerous situation? 

The sequence of changes that take place in human body when it prepares to protect itself from a scary situation are are as follows:

1. Adrenaline gland secretes more adrenaline hormone.

2. Blood carries the hormone to different body parts.

3. The hormone increases breathing rate, rate of heart-beat and flow of blood to muscles.

4. More sugar is poured in blood by liver under the influence of the hormone.

5. All these activities produce more energy in the body.

Q.47 Name the hormone associated with : 

(a) Maintenance of pregnancy

(b) Regulation of male  sex characters?

(a) Progesterone

(b) Testosterone

Q.48 Mention any two characteristics of hormones?

The two characteristics of hormones are:

1. They are fluids containing  mainly chemicals.

2. They monitors various body functions.

Q.49 How does our body respond when adrenal gland secrete its hormone? 

Various changes occur in body when adrenaline hormone is secreted:

1. The hormone increases breathing rate, rate of heart-beat and flow of blood to muscles.

2. More sugar is poured in blood by liver under the influence of the hormone.

3. All these activities produce more energy in the body.

Q.50  Name the hormone secreted by thyroid gland. List its function. Why is the use of iodized salt advisable? 

Thyroid gland secretes thyroxine.

Its functions are regulation of metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and proteins.

Iodine is a necessary substance needed for secretion of thyroxine. So iodized salt is advisable.

Q.51  A gland secretes a particular hormone. The deficiency of this hormone in the body causes a particular disease in which the blood sugar level rises:

(i) Name the gland and the hormone secreted by it.

(ii) Mention the role played by this hormone

(iii) Name the disease caused due to deficiency of this hormone.

(i) The gland is pancreas and it secretes insulin.

(ii) It regulates the amount of sugar in blood.

(iii) Diabetes

Q.52 Give reasons : 

(a) Pituitary is often termed as master endocrine gland.

(b) Pancreas helps in digestion and also regulates blood sugar level

(c) Adrenals are known  as glands of emergency.

(a) Pituitary gland secretes many hormones. Some of these hormones controls the secretion of other gland. So, it is also known as master endocrine gland.

(b) Pancreas secretes insulin. It regulated amount of sugar in blood. It also secretes some enzymes which help in digestion.

(c) Adrenal gland secretes adrenaline in situation of emergency which increases rate of breathing, rate of heart beat, blood flow, amount of sugar in blood, etc. All these supplies more energy to our body so that we can fight, react or resist with that situation of emergency.

Q.53 Name the endocrine gland associated with brain?   


Q.54 Which gland secretes digestive enzymes as well as hormone?


Q.55 Name the endocrine gland present in males but not in females? 


Q.56 Name any three endocrine glands in human body and briefly write the functions of each of them?

Three endocrine glands in body along with their functions are:

(i) Pineal Gland: It secretes melatonin which regulates sleep cycle.

(ii) Parathyroid gland: Is secretes parathormore (parathyroid hormone) which regulates the level of calcium and phosphate in body.

(iii) Thymus gland: It secrets thymosine hormone which plays important role in development of immune system.

Q.57 A boy runs on seeing a stray dog. His breathing becomes very fast and blood pressure also increases . Name the hormones found to be high in his blood and the gland which produces it? 

Adrenaline produced by adrenal gland.

Q.58 Why endocrine glands release their secretions into the blood? 

The secretions of endocrine gland needs to reach to organs situated in different body parts. Blood flows throughout the body transporting different substances. So the endocrine glands releases  their secretions in blood so that it reaches to the required locations.

Q.59 Where is glucagon secreted ? What is its function? 

It is secreted by pancreas and it regulates the amount of sugar in blood.

Q.60 State the position of thyroid and adrenal glands in man? 

Thyroid gland is present around the wind pipe in neck. Adrenal glands are present on top of kidneys.

Q.61 Name the hormone that controls the water and electrolyte balance in the body and its source glands? 

 Vasopressin secreted by hypothalamus.

Q.62 What are ‘releasing hormones’? Where are they released from? 

Releasing hormones are those hormones which regulates the release of hormones of glands. They are released mainly from hypothalamus and pituitary glands.

Q.63 Justify that the pancreas and the gonads perform dual functions?

Pancreas performs the dual function by producing hormones to regulate the amount of sugar in blood and enzymes for digestion.

Gonad performs dual functions by making gametes and by releasing sex hormones.

Q.64 Give one example to show how the endocrine system coordinates our body activities? 

Lets take an example of adrenal gland to show the way in which our endocrine system controls body activities. The sequence of changes that takes place in human body when it prepares to protect itself from a scary situation are:

(i) Adrenaline gland secretes more adrenaline hormone.

(ii) Blood carries the hormone to different body parts.

(iii) The hormone increases breathing rate, rate of heart-beat and flow of blood to muscles.

(iv) More sugar is added in blood by liver under the influence of the hormone.

(v)All this provides more energy to our body to fight this situation

Q.65 Show in a tabular form the names of endocrine glands, hormones secreted by them and their functions?

Q.66 Why endocrine system is needed when nervous system is already there to do control and coordination?

Nervous system has many drawbacks due to which endocrine system is needed:

• Nervous system is not very efficient in controlling large number of organs at a time for a particular job. In such situations endocrine system is better.

• Nervous system is not meant for sending continuous messages for long time periods. But endocrine system can easily send continuous chemical messages in slow and steady manner. So endocrine system is better for controlling slow processes such as body growth.

In Plants

Q.67 Compare control and coordination in plants and animals?

 Q.68 What type  of movement is shown by mimosa plant leaves when touched with a finger?

Thigmo-Nastic Movement

Q.69 Which type of tropic movement is responsible for the growth of pollen tubes towards ovules? 


Q.70 What causes tendrils to encircle or coil around the object in contact with it? Explain the process  involved ?

This happens due to the presence of positive thigmotropism response.  It is already known that more auxin is secreted on the other side of stem which results in more growth on that side. This leads to the bending of stem around the contact surface. The contact acts as a stimulus to which the tendril produces a positive response. Thus the stems are able to encircle the object in contact.

Q.71 What is geotropism? Describe an experiment to demonstrate positive and negative geotropism? 

When stems and roots of a plant moves against and along the direction of gravity respectively, it is called geotropism.

To demonstrate geotropism, we can do a simple experiment as shown in the diagram below. We can put a potted plant in horizontal position for a few days. We notice that the stem starts bending upward. This shows positive geotropism. The root starts bending downwards which shows negative geotropism.


Q.72 Name four different types of plant hormones with their functions? 

(i) Auxin : It controls growth of stem, fruits and roots.

(ii) Gibberellins : It controls growth of stem, breaking dormancy of buds and seeds and growth of fruits.

(iii) Cytokinin : It controls growth of plants by cell division, functioning of stomata, breaking dormancy of seeds. These type of hormones present more in seeds and fruits.

(iv) Abscissic Acid (ABA) : It controls inhibit growth, controls shedding of leaves, functioning of stomata and promote dormancy of seeds.

Q.73 What is chemo-tropism ? Give one example? 

Movement of plant or parts of plant in response to a chemical stimulus is called chemo-tropism. The growth of pollen tube towards the style during the process of fertilization is due to the presence of chemicals (sugars in the style) shows positive chemotrophic movement.

Q.74 What is tropism? 

Directional  movement observed in various plant parts under the influence of external stimuli such as light, gravity, water,etc is called tropism.

Q.75 How are movement of leaves of touch-me-not plant and growth of stem towards light different? (3)

 Q.76 Describe various types of tropic movements? 

• Phototropism: the growth of plants parts in response to light.

• Geotropism / Gravitropism: When stem and root of plant moves against and along the direction of gravity respectively.

• Hydrotropism: Movement of root towards water is called hydrotropism.

• Chemotropism: Movement of plant or parts of plant in response to a chemical stimulus is called chemotropism.

• Thigmotropism: It is the movement of stem of some plants over a surface influenced by touch. The plant grows in a way so as it can coil around a support.

Q.77 Which one of the following on touch is an example of chemical control? 

(i) Movement on the touch-sensitive plant

(ii) Movement in human leg


Q.78 Which plant hormone makes the shoot bend towards sunlight? 


Q.79 What are ‘nastic’ and ‘curvature’ movements ? Give one example of each? 

 Nastic movements are the movements found in parts of plant body, in which direction of the response is not dependent on the direction of the stimulus. For example, when we touch the leaves of Mimosa pudica / touch-me-not plant, its leaves fold inward and droop. The drooping is independent of the direction from which the leaves are touched.

Curvature movements are tropism responses in which movement of parts of plants occur in a particular direction under the influence of any stimulus. In such movements, the stem of the plant shows curved movement due to accumulation of growth hormones in a particular part. For example: movement of stem towards light.

Q.80 What happens when plant is exposed to unidirectional light ? Also name the hormone and the type of movement? 

 When light comes from top, all sides of stem gets same light. Auxin is also known as phytohormone as it is responsible for growth. Thus, when in normal conditions auxin is uniformly distributed in stem and the growth observed in stem is normal . But when light comes only from one side, auxin hormones gather on the other side and influence more growth on that side. This leads to the bending of stem towards the direction of the incoming light. This type of movement is called photo-tropism.

Quesn 80

Q.81 Give the difference between auxins and gibberellins? 

 Auxin is mainly responsible for growth . Gibberrellins is mainly responsible for breaking dormancy of buds and seeds and also for growth of fruits.

Q.82 Write the main difference between auxins and cytokinins? 

Auxin is mainly responsible for growth of stem, are produced at the tips of the shoot and then distributed  till the roots . 

Cytokinins are hormones that promote cell division, or cytokinesis, in plant roots and shoots for growth purpose. Primarily this hormone is responsible for cell growth and differentiation, however it also affects apical dormancy, axillary bud growth, and leaf senescence.


Value based questions

Q.1 Mayank ‘s father never bothered to check the brand / contents of the salt he had purchased from the market. Mayank noticed that her sister had developed swollen neck. The doctor advised her to eat Iodized Salt.

(i) Name the disease the sister is suffering from.

(ii) Why does the doctor advised to eat Iodized Salt?

(i) Goitre due to the deficiency of iodine.

(ii) Iodized salt has iodine which is necessary for secretion of Thyroxine by thyroid gland. Once Thyroxine is secreted in adequate amount, the disease will be cured.

Q.2 Often the road accident victims face really a tough time due to the shortage of blood in the hospital. Give suggestions to avoid shortage of blood in the blood bank?

We all should donate blood as per advice of doctor at regular interval. It has been proved medically that such a practice is good for our health. The body takes 24 hours to replenish the fluid.Hence, donating blood is a beneficial task towards the blood banks to have enough stock for patients.

Q.3 A person is taking the insulin injection every day.

(i) Name the disease he is suffering from.

(ii) How does healthy life style helps this patient to control this disease ?

(i) Diabetes mellitus

(ii) A diabetic patient should take following steps to control the disease:

• A healthy diet containing less sugar and starch by consuming more fiber.

• Being physically active. Can do morning walk to release more sweating from body for example.

• Proper and regular check-ups and taking medicines on time.

• Keep checking sugar level regularly

• No smoking

• Drinking lot of water and avoiding juices.

Q.4 Most of students suffer from exam stress and anxiety during exam days.

(i) Suggest three good habits which students should adopt tackle this problem. 

The students should adopt following steps to tackle anxiety:

• Students should maintain calmness and feel confident about the studied syllabus. They should study in small amount throughout the year by clearing concepts.

• A proper revision plan is necessary for easing out pressure at exam time. For example, they should make short notes for revision at exam times.

• While solving questions throughout the year, they should mark the difficult questions to be revised during exam time.

• Proper sleeping is must during examination time to provide complete rest to the brain.

Q.5 Generally some of teenagers readily come under bad influences under peer group pressure.

(i) Why does teenagers readily come under this influence.

(ii) Suggest methods to overcome such problems.

(i) Teenagers are very tender and can be influenced very easily. Puberty is an age when one thinks more of sort gains rather than long-term issues. So, their mind becomes vulnerable to bad influences. Then, peer pressure is a very important thing for teenagers. They want to be considered hero in their groups at any cost. This also force them many times to take wrong path.

(ii) This problem can be solved by proper care and interactive mode of discussion by parents and teachers. They should keep a friendly relationship with child so that he can easily share his problem with them. They should keep embedding good ethics and moral values right from the beginning. If they get any hint on anything going know, they should take immediate action by talking to the child. They should develop a level of trust and compassion with the child.


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