Conservation of Plants & Animals - Class 8 : Notes

We know that large varieties of plants and animals are present on earth.

Different kinds of Animals and Plants

The clearing of forests and using the land for various purposes is termed as deforestation.
It is responsible for survival threat to many living organisms.

Causes of deforestation:
1. Rapid urban development:

2. Agriculture related purposes:

3. Fuel requirement:

4. Setting up industries:

5. Making furniture.
6. Moreover, natural causes like forest fires, droughts, etc. are also responsible for deforestation.

Consequences of deforestation:
1. Increase in the temperature and pollution level.
2. Decrease in the ground water level.
3. Decrease in rainfall and fertility of soil.
4. Increase in natural calamities like floods, droughts, etc.
5. Decrease in the water holding capacity and water infiltration rate of soil. The other properties of the soil like nutrient content, texture, etc., also change because of deforestation
6. Global warming:
Deforestation will decrease number of trees that will lead to increase in carbon dioxide level in the atmosphere.  The carbon dioxide gas traps the heat rays reflected from earth’s surface and this will result in increase in temperature on earth and it will disturb the water cycle too and may reduce rainfall. This could cause droughts.

Global Warming

7. Desertification:
Deforestation is also responsible for the change in the soil properties. Lesser number of trees will result into more soil erosion. The removal of top layer of soil will result into hard rocky layer which is less fertile and humus. Eventually, the fertile land will be converted into deserts. Such a process is known as desertification.



Conservation of Forest and Wildlife:
(i) To prevent deforestation and for the conservation of forests and wildlife, the government has implement many rules, methods and policies.
(ii) Amongst many steps, areas called sanctuaries, national parks and biosphere reserves have been marked where activities like plantation, cultivation, grazing, hunting, poaching, etc. are prohibited.

(i) These are the places where animals and their habitants are safe from any external disturbances with very limited human activities.
(ii) Some of the well known sanctuaries in India are Corbett National Park in Uttarakhand, Ranthambore National Park in Rajasthan, etc.

National Park:
(i) These are the places where animals can use their habitats and natural resources freely.
(ii) Some of the well known sanctuaries in India are Bandipur National Park in Karnataka, Keoladeo Ghana National Park in Rajasthan, etc.

Sanctuary and National Park in Gujarat, India


Biosphere Reserve:
(i) These are the places for conservation of wild life, animals, plants, traditional life of tribes, etc.
(ii) These are the areas meant for the conservation of bio diversity.
(iii) The biosphere reserve conserves the biodiversity and culture of that particular area.

Biological Diversity or Biodiversity:

(i) It refers to the variety of organisms living on the earth, their inter-relationships and their relationships with the environment.
(ii) Some of the well known biosphere reserves in India are Nilgiri biosphere reserve in Karnataka, Sunder bans in West Bengal, etc.
(iii) The Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve consists of one national park named as Satpura and two wildlife sanctuaries named as Bori and Pachmarhi.

Flora and fauna:
(1) Flora:
(i) The plants of a particular region or area are termed as its flora.
(ii) Examples of flora include sal, coral, teak, mango, jamun, sunflower, etc.

(2) Fauna:
(i) The animals of a particular region or area are termed as its fauna.
(ii) Examples of fauna include deer, lion, parrot, eagle, ant, goldfish, etc.


It is a group of organisms which are capable of interbreeding. They can reproduce and give births to infants of the same kind and not of other kinds. These organisms will possess the same characteristics.

Endemic Species:
(i) These are the species which are completely confined in a particular area and not found anywhere else.
Any animal or plant could be endemic to an area, a state or a country.
(ii) If any destruction takes place at such habitats, then it could affect their population and could also endanger the entire species existence.
Example of endemic species includes tree like sal, wild mango, etc. and animals like bison, Indian giant squirrel, etc. which are found only in Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve.

Wildlife Sanctuary:
(i) These are the areas reserved for the protection, and giving suitable living conditions to animals.
Activities like hunting; poaching, capturing, etc. of animals is prohibited in these sanctuaries.
(ii) Sanctuaries have given protection to many endangered species like black buck, white eyed buck, elephant, golden cat, pink headed duck, gharial, marsh crocodile, python, rhinoceros, etc.
(iii) Indian sanctuaries have unique landscapes - broad level forests, mountain forests and bush lands in deltas of big rivers.


National Park:
(i) These are the reserves that are large and diverse that provides protection to entire ecosystem.
(ii) They preserve plants, animals, lands and historic objects etc. of that particular area.
Satpura National Park:
(i) It is the first Reserve Forest of India.
(ii) The finest Indian teak is found in this forest.Moreover, rock shelters are also found in this park.
(iii) There are pre-historic things found in this park showing existence of humans in this forests and give us idea about the primitive people. Even, rock paintings have been found in this place. These figures include animal and men fighting, hunting, dancing and playing instruments.
(iv) An initiative “Project Tiger” was launched by the government to protect tigers in this place. The main aim behind this project was to protect and increase the tiger population of the country.
In earlier times, animals like lions, elephants, wild buffaloes, etc. were also found in this reserve forest.

Endangered species:
(i) Those animals whose numbers are gradually decreasing and might get extinct soon are known as endangered animals.
(ii) The animals small in size are more likely to become endangered than the bigger animals.
Examples of some endangered animals are snow leopard, Giant Panda, whooping crane, etc.

(i) It is a system that comprises of all the plants, animals and micro-organisms dwelling in a particular area along with non-living things like air, water, soil, etc.
(ii) There is an equal importance of each and every organism whether it may be snakes, frogs, lizards, bats, etc. for proper functioning of an ecosystem.


Red Data Book:

(i) It is a book which has list of all the endangered plants and animals.
(ii) The books for plants, animals and other species are all individual.

(i) It is the seasonal movement of animals, birds, etc. from one place to another in search for better climate, breeding place, food, etc.
(ii) There are many birds that migrate from one part of the earth to another due to climatic changes mainly for breeding purpose. They need suitable climate for rearing their young ones.

Recycling of Paper:
One of the reasons for deforestation is the manufacturing of the papers. Remember, lots of harmful chemicals are utilized in manufacturing process of papers. It takes 17 full grown trees to make one tonne of paper. Hence, it is advisable to save, reuse and recycle paper. Paper can be recycled five to seven times for use.


It is the restocking of deforested forests by planting new trees.

Steps to follow reforestation:
1. Try to implant new plants of same species which were present before.
2. Try to plant the same or more number of trees as are cut.
3. Natural reforestation – It is the natural growth of trees taking place at deforestation site if left undisturbed. No human involvement is needed in this case.
4. Forest Act - It is the act initiated to preserve and conserve forests, so that people inhabiting these forests can fulfill their basic needs.






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