Conservation of Plants and Animals - Class 8 : NCERT Exercise Questions



Q.1 Fill in the blanks:
(a) A place where animals are protected in their natural habitat is called ____________.
(b) Species found only in a particular area is known as ____________.
(c) Migratory birds fly to far away places because of ____________ changes.
Sol. (a) A place where animals are protected in their natural habitat is called wildlife sanctuary.
(b) Species found only in a particular area is known as Endemic species.
(c) Migratory birds fly to far away places because of climatic changes.

Q.2 Differentiate between the following:
(a) Wildlife sanctuary and biosphere reserve
(b) Zoo and wildlife sanctuary
(c) Endangered and extinct species
(d) Flora and fauna
Sol. (a) The differences between wildlife sanctuary and biosphere reserve are:

Wildlife Sanctuary

Biosphere Reserve

Areas which provide protection and suitable living conditions to wild animals are known as wildlife sanctuaries.

Large areas of protected land for conservation of wild life, plant and animal resources and traditional life of the tribals living in the area are known as biosphere reserve.

In these sanctuaries hunting, poaching, grazing, felling trees etc. are strictly prohibited.

A biosphere reserved is consisted of many protected areas like sanctuaries, national parks, lakes mountains etc.

In India, there are about 543 wildlife sanctuaries.

In India, there are about 18 Biosphere reserves.


(b) The differences between zoo and wildlife sanctuary are:

Zoo

Wildlife Sanctuary

Areas where collection of animals are kept for public display, conservation, etc.

Areas which provide protection and suitable living conditions to wild animals are known as wildlife sanctuaries.

In zoo, wild animals are usually kept under artificial habitats.

In sanctuaries, wild animals are usually kept under natural habitats.


(c) The differences between endangered and extinct species are:

Endangered Species

Extinct Species

Animals whose numbers are diminishing to a level that they might face extinction are known as the endangered animals.

Animals that can no longer be found in the wild or in captivity are known as extinct species.

Example: Tiger, Wild buffalo, Barasingha, etc.

Example: Dinosaurs, Dodo, Tasmanian Tiger, etc.


(d) The differences between flora and fauna are:

Flora

Fauna

The plants found in a particular area are termed as flora of that area.

The animals found in a particular area are termed as flora of that area.

Example: Sal, teak, mango, jamun, silver ferns, arjun, etc

Example: Chinkara, blue-bull, barking deer, cheetal, leopard, wild dog, wolf, etc.


Q.3
Discuss the effects of deforestation on the following:
(a) Wild animals
(b) Environment
(c) Villages (Rural areas)
(d) Cities (Urban areas)
(e) Earth
(f) The next generation
Sol. (a) Wild animals:
Forests are the natural habitat of the animals. So, deforestation will destroy their natural habitat leaving them with no place to live and breed.

(b) Environment:
Fewer trees would mean that less carbon dioxide will be used up resulting in its increased amount in the atmosphere. This will lead to global warming as carbon dioxide traps the heat rays reflected by the earth. The increase in temperature on the earth disturbs the water cycle and may reduce rainfall. This could cause droughts.

(c) Villages (Rural areas):
The main occupation of people residing in the villages is farming. Fewer trees result in more soil erosion. Removal of the top layer of the soil exposes the lower, hard and rocky layers. This soil has less humus and is less fertile. Hence, a fertile land, which is a source of living for farmers, gets converted into a desert. Moreover, the rural areas largely depend on forests for fuel, fruits, wood etc. Deforestation, thus, has reduced the resources for the villagers.

(d) Cities (Urban areas):
Deforestation in cities can increase the risk of natural disasters like floods and droughts. Also, the emission of air pollutants from vehicles leads to global warming.

(e) Earth:
Due to deforestation, chances of floods, droughts, desertification, etc. increases. Global warming, due to deforestation, is responsible for the increase in the temperature of Earth. As a result, water cycle gets disrupted.

(f) The next generation:
Deforestation is changing the environmental conditions severely. It has caused global warming, soil erosion, droughts, floods, etc. Many species are at the verge of extinction because of deforestation and some species are already extinct. The next generation might have to suffer from extreme weather conditions all resulting due to deforestation.

Q.4 What will happen if:
(a) we go on cutting trees.
(b) the habitat of an animal is disturbed.
(c) the top layer of soil is exposed.
Sol. (a)We go on cutting trees:
If we go on cutting trees, rainfall and fertility of soil will decrease. Hence, the water holding capacity of the soil will decrease resulting in floods. Moreover, the natural habitat of many animals will get completely destroyed which will severely affect the biodiversity.
(b) The habitat of an animal is disturbed:
If the habitat of an animal is disturbed it will become difficult for them to survive. They will have to migrate to other places in search of food, shelter and other basic necessities. They might suffer problem in breeding, as a result many species might become extinct.
(c) the top layer of soil is exposed:
The top layer of soil is the most fertile layer. The removal of top layer will expose the lower layer of soil, which is hard and rocky in nature. This type of soil is less fertile and will gradually convert the fertile land into deserts.

Q.5 Answer in brief:
(a) Why should we conserve biodiversity?
(b) Protected forests are also not completely safe for wild animals. Why?
(c) Some tribals depend on the jungle. How?
(d) What are the causes and consequences of deforestation?
(e) What is Red Data Book?
(f) What do you understand by the term migration?
Sol. (a) Biodiversity refers to the variety of organisms existing on the earth, their interrelationships and their relationship with the environment. Flora and fauna depend on each other for survival. This means that the destruction of either of them will affect the other. Hence, we need to conserve the biodiversity.

(b) Protected forests are not completely safe for wild animals because people residing in nearby areas have access to forests. So, poachers of these areas would kill animals to earn a good amount of money.

(c) There are many tribes which depend on the jungle for food, fodder, wood, etc. Their basic requirements are fulfilled by these forests.

(d) The causes of deforestation are:
(i) Urbanization and industrialization.
(ii) Procuring land for cultivation.
(iii) Requirement of wood as fuel and other purposes.
(iv) Cattle grazing.
The consequences of deforestation are:
(i) Soil erosion
(ii) Loss of biodiversity.
(iii) Floods and droughts.
(iv) Destrification
(v) Global warming and climatic changes.
(vi) Disruption of water cycle.

(e) Red Data Book is the source book which keeps a record of all the endangered animals and plants. Different record books are maintained for endangered animals and endangered plants.

(f) Migration is the seasonal movement of animals, birds, etc. from one place to another in search for better climate, breeding place, food, etc. They move to far away places because of climatic changes and return to their original habitat after some time.

Q.6 In order to meet the ever-increasing demand in factories and for shelter, trees are being continually cut. Is it justified to cut trees for such projects? Discuss and prepare a brief report.
Sol.The urbanization and industrialization has led to increase in the cutting of trees. But, cutting trees to meet the ever-increasing demand in factories and for shelter is not justifiable. Forests are the habitat of many organisms. They provide us with oxygen and absorb the harmful carbon dioxide, thus, helps in preventing global warming. They prevent soil erosion and natural calamities like floods, droughts, etc. They increase the fertility of the soil and conserve biodiversity. To justify the deforestation, the best option is reforestation which means restocking of destroyed forests by planting new trees. So it is very important to plant more trees and to find out ways of recycling and restoring our natural wealth.       

Q.7 How can you contribute to the maintenance of green wealth of your locality? Make a list of actions to be taken by you.
Sol. The green wealth of the locality is the responsibility of each and every individual. I would take up following actions to contribute to maintenance of green wealth:
(i) Grow more trees and plants in the locality.
(ii) Aware people about the consequences of deforestation.
(iii) Encourage people to grow trees.
(iv) Educate people by making slogans.

Q.8 Explain how deforestation leads to reduced rainfall.
Sol. Deforestation leads to decrease in the number of trees. Plants absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and release the oxygen during the process of photosynthesis. Less number of trees means increase in the level of carbon dioxide. The high levels of CO2 in the atmosphere will trap more heat radiations, leading to global warming. This in turn, will increase temperature on the earth disturbing the water cycle and may reduce rainfall.

 

Q.9 Find out the information about the national parks in your state. Identify and show their location on the outline map of India.
Sol. Few of the famous national parks in India and their location are as follows:
1. Jim Corbett National Park:
It is the oldest national park in India and was established in 1936 to protect the endangered Bengal tiger. It is located in Nainital district of Uttarakhand. Dense moist deciduous forest mainly consists of sal, haldu, peepal, rohini and mango trees. Forest covers almost 73% of the park, 10% of the area consists of grasslands. It houses around 110 tree species, 50 species of mammals, 580 bird species and 25 reptile species.
2. Kaziranga National Park:
It is a national park in the Golaghat and Nagaon districts of the state of Assam, India. The sanctuary, which hosts two-thirds of the world's great one-horned rhinoceroses, is a World Heritage Site. It is a vast expanse of tall elephant grass, marshland, and dense tropical moist broadleaf forests, criss-crossed by four major rivers, including the Brahmaputra, and the park includes numerous small bodies of water.
3. Gir Forest National Park:
It is a forest and wildlife sanctuarynear Talala Gir in Gujarat, India. Established in 1965, with a total area of 1,412 km2. Its region is the sole home of the Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica) in the wilderness, and is considered to be one of the most important protected areas in Asia due to its supported species. 

4. Periyar National Park:
It is a protected area near Thekkady in the districts of Idukki, Kottayam and Pathanamthitta in Kerala, India. It is notable as an elephant reserve and a tiger reserve. The park is a repository of rare, endemic and endangered flora and fauna and forms the major watershed of two important rivers of Kerala, the Periyar and the Pamba.

Q.10 Why should paper be saved? Prepare a list of ways by which you can save paper.
Sol. Paper is used in our day to day life. It takes lots of trees to meet the demand of paper. Trees play a very important role in maintaining the balance of nature. So, we must save paper.
Following are the list of ways by which paper can be saved:
(i) We should recycle the paper.
(ii) We should not throw away paper here and there.
(iii) We should spread awareness regarding the importance of paper.
(iv) We should encourage people for buying recycled paper products.
(v) We should use paper wisely.

Q.11 Complete the word puzzle:
Down:
1. Species on the verge of extinction.
2. A book carrying information about endangered species.
5. Consequence of deforestation.
Across:
1. Species which have vanished.
3. Species found only in a particular habitat.
4. Variety of plants, animals and microorganisms found in an area.
Sol.
Down:
1. Endangered
2. Red Data Book
5. Deserts
Across:
1. Extinct
3. Endemic
4. Biodiversity



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